The primary problems with mental causation are nicely summed up by Yablo (“Mental Causation” The Philosophical Review, Vol. 101, No. 2 (April 1992) ). http://www.jstor.org/pss/2185535 Yablo defines dualism as follows: In other words, the physical description of the color red as it appears in the mind will be different than the mental description of the color red (distinct), but they both should be taken as phenomena that actually occur (existents). The physical description would discuss what neurons and sections of the brain are active when the phenomenon of ‘red’ occurs, while the mental description would focus on explaining the qualia. Take for example, an allegedly conscious computer. For the sake of clarity, let’s model a computer as a large collection of switches, which is basically all a computer is. A transistor is at the heart of every modern computer which is nothing more than a switch. We can examine a computer that is reporting that it sees the color red when looking at a fire truck for example. This computer will have a camera for eyes and a speaker for a mouth. So out of the speaker, when the camera is turned on a fire truck, it reports ‘red’. But did it report red because it actually is experiencing red, or because its circuit is designed such that red is reported? None of the transistors in the computer are influenced by any ‘experience’ of redness. Each transistor only changes state because an electrical current is either applied or removed. And per computationalism, the experience of the color red is a phenomena produced by the interactions of the transistors, it is not a phenomena produced by any given transistor. For the computer, we have physical events (changes transistor states) which have physical causes (application or removal of electric current). Mental events therefore, are not causally relevant and are epiphenomenal. Appeals to mental causation because of quantum phenomena may also be problematic. Very briefly, if a quantum physical event was somehow influenced by a mental event, such as protein folding for example, then the probability of the physical event will have been influenced by the mental event. If a quantum physical event has a 50/50 chance of occurring and that event is influenced by some mental event such that the physical event no longer occurs with a 50/50 chance. This might violate entropy since a system can now become more ordered because of mental events. What’s your view? How can mental events be reconciled with physical events? Please provide references to the literature if at all possible. We don’t want personal theories.