Carbon rich stars

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Title: The Frequency of Carbon Rich Stars Among Extremely Metal Poor Stars
Authors: Judith G. Cohen, Stephen Shectman, Ian Thompson, Andrew McWilliam, Norbert Christlieb, Jorge Melendez, Franz-Josef Zickgraf, Solange Ramírez, Amber Swenson
Comments: Submitted to the proceedings of the IAU Symposium 228, From Lithium to Uranium: Elemental Tracers of Early Cosmic Evolution (Paris, 23--27 May 2005), Cambridge University Press, ed: Vanessa Hill, Patrick Francois & Francesca Primas

We demonstrate that there are systematic scale errors in the [Fe/H] values determined by the Hamburg/ESO Survey (and by the HK Survey by inference) for certain extremely metal poor (EMP) highly C-enhanced giants. The consequences of these scale errors are that a) the fraction of carbon stars at extremely low metallicities has been substantially overestimated in several papers in the recent literature b) the number of EMP stars known is somewhat lower than has been quoted in the recent literature c) the yield for EMP stars by the HK and the HES Survey is somewhat lower than is stated in the recent literature. A preliminary estimate for the frequency of Carbon stars among the giants in the HES sample with -4 < [Fe/H] < -2.0 dex is 7.4 \pm 2.9%, and for C-rich giants with [C/Fe] > +1.0 dex is 14.4 \pm 4%.
Here we present the key results of detailed abundance analyses of 14 C-stars selected from the HES as candidate EMP stars, of ~50 such stars analyzed. About 80% of such C-stars show highly enhanced Ba as well, with C enhanced by a factor of about 100, and [Ba/C] roughly Solar. These stars often show prominent lead lines, The remaining 20% of the C-stars do not show an enhancemement of the s-process neutron capture elements around the Ba peak. They tend to be the most metal-poor stars studied. We suggest that all these EMP C-stars are the remnants of the secondary in a mass transfer binary system where the former primary was an AGB star, which transferred substantial mass at that evolutionary stage.
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