# Chemical Bonds

1. Dec 14, 2005

### AngelShare

I just started a worksheet and wanted to check the answers I've gotten thus far and ask for a bit of help with the ones I'm stuck on.

A chemical bond is an attractive force that holds atoms together.

Chemical bonding is the process of atoms combining to form new substances.

Matter tends to exist in its lowest energy state.

A(n) I just realized how stupid my answer was so strike that:rofl: is a bond in which one atom donates electrons to another atom.

Ions are atoms with positive or negative charges.

Ionization is the process of removing electrons from atoms to form ions.

Electron affinity is the tendency of an atom to gain electrons when forming bonds.

A bond in which atoms share electrons is called a covalent bond.

Which has more valence electrons? Potassium or Oxygen. Potassium

How many valence electrons does the following element have: Cesium

Could someone explain to me how to use the periodic table to figure out how many valence electrons each element has?

1.How many valence electrons does the following element have: Oxygen

2. Name one element that oxygen would form an ionic bond with.

I could probably figure this out on my own once someone explains to me how to do the previous question.

Describe the process of how an ionic bond forms. You should discuss the types of atoms involved (metals or non-metals) as well as the electrons involved.

All I know is that ionic bonds occur between (At least I think I know) metals and nonmetals.

Describe the process of how a covalent bond forms. You should discuss the types of atoms involved (metals or non-metals) as well as the electrons involved.

Same thing here...they form between nonmetals, right?

Last edited: Dec 14, 2005
2. Dec 15, 2005

### Ouabache

What is a valence electron?

To use the periodic table for determining the number of valence electrons, I'll give a hint: it has to do with the column (synonym: family or group) an element is in. You can see what I mean in this reference

Last edited: Dec 15, 2005
3. Dec 16, 2005

### bomba923

An ionic bond
Ions atoms and molecules that possess a "positive or negative" charge.
It is not necessarily an oxidative process. Removing an electron (oxidizing) from a neutral sodium atom (i.e., $$1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^1$$) results in a sodium cation (i.e., $$\text{Na} ^ {+}$$ with electron configuration $$1s^2 2s^2 2p^6$$, as that of neon). Similarly, adding an electron (reducing) to a neutral fluorine atom (i.e., $$1s^2 2s^2 2p^5$$) results in a fluorine anion (i.e., $$\text{F} ^ {-}$$ with electron configuration $$1s^2 2s^2 2p^6$$, as that of neon). You see, ionization includes both oxidation and reduction.
Potassium: $$1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^1$$
Oxygen: $$1s^2 2s^2 2p^4$$

Valence (outermost) electrons belong to the highest quantum level orbital(s) of atom. Valence of potassium is $$4s^1$$; valence of oxygen is $$2s^2 2p^4$$. As you can see, potassium has just one valence electron, whereas oxygen has 2 + 4 = 6 valence electrons. Hence, oxygen has more valence electrons than potassium. If you wish, you can emphasize valency by rewriting as:

Potassium: $$\left[ {{\text{Ar}}} \right]4s^1$$
Oxygen: $$\left[ {{\text{He}}} \right]2s^2 2p^4$$
Cesium (Cs): $$1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 4p^6 5s^2 5p^6 6s^1$$.
Or equivalently, you can express
Cesium: $$\left[ {{\text{Xe}}} \right]6s^1$$

As you can see, cesium (like all alkali metals) has just one valence electon.
1) Oxygen is $$1s^2 2s^2 2p^4$$, equivalently written $$\left[ {{\text{He}}} \right]2s^2 2p^4$$. Since 2 + 4 = 6, an oxygen atom has six valence electrons (as its highest quantum level is 2).

2) Good old iron..., rusty, rusty, iron
-------------------
I reply later to the other questions
(later I'll have more time to offer help )

Last edited: Dec 16, 2005
4. Dec 16, 2005

### AngelShare

Wow, you went right over my head there.:rofl:

I have what I need now but one question still has me stumped...

A(n) ________ is a bond in which one atom donates electrons to another atom.

I can't tell if I'm missing something or if the question is worded incorrectly.

5. Dec 16, 2005

### andrewchang

ionic bond

6. Dec 19, 2005

### xxemeraldsxx

valence electrons

Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost (or last) energy level of the atom. :surprised yup

7. Dec 19, 2005

### xxemeraldsxx

ahhh!

and omg i've got the same exact worksheet as you!! woo!

8. Dec 19, 2005

### AngelShare

Really? Do you go to a public school?

9. Dec 19, 2005

### xxemeraldsxx

ahhh!

mmm nope i do mine online at flvs.net. but i swear i was working on that same worksheet last night. :zzz:

10. Dec 20, 2005

### AngelShare

So do I.

Well, I used to anyways. I had to take a course through FLVS because CPDLF didn't offer it.

Last edited: Dec 20, 2005
11. Nov 13, 2006

### Ultric Sandov

It is Worksheet 3.04 to be exact. I am also taking that course. Small World