# Chemical reactions

The more reactive an element, the stronger bonds it forms, because the same energy must be put in to that bond to separate them that was put out due to the reaction. Most of the elements we are made of, in pure form, are reactive correct? Carbon and oxygen have very high electronegativities, and Hydrogen is reactive as well. Therefore, shouldn't elements stop bonding after one or two reactions? For instance, lets make some HO. After the reaction is done, I am sure much energy was put into the reaction,due to both the elements being very reactive. So why is it that when another Hydrogen atom comes along, the HO will react with the lone H atom, if they are already in a stable state?

Firstly it's $$OH^{1-}$$, meaning it has a negative charge so when a hydrogen ion $$H^+$$ (a proton) comes along it is attracted and creates a stable and neutral water molecule $$H_2O$$ but it can also create a monoprotic hydronium $$H_3O^+$$. There is a constant equilibrium reaction in water $$H_2O + H^+ \leftrightarrow H_3O^+$$ meaning it changes back and forth because water acts as a base and an acid.

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Borek
Mentor
Obviously HO is not stable, it is H2O that is stable. In the simplest version - hydrogen is monovalent, oxygen is divalent. In OH hydrogen is happy (bonded), but oxygen has one valence left, so it still wants to bond with something. Another hydrogen will do.

I think instead of asking random questions you should start with some systematic chemistry course. For example you may try http://preparatorychemistry.com (I must admit I don't know the book, but I have heard good opinions).

Borek
Mentor
Firstly it's $$OH^{1-}$$, meaning it has a negative charge

Hard to say what it is, it can be as well OH. (free radical).

Obviously HO is not stable, it is H2O that is stable. In the simplest version - hydrogen is monovalent, oxygen is divalent. In OH hydrogen is happy (bonded), but oxygen has one valence left, so it still wants to bond with something. Another hydrogen will do.

I think instead of asking random questions you should start with some systematic chemistry course. For example you may try http://preparatorychemistry.com (I must admit I don't know the book, but I have heard good opinions).

Thank you. And if I may ask, what are some dignified Chemists that are also authors?

Borek
Mentor
No idea what you are asking about, but let's say Linus Pauling.

Firstly it's $$OH^{1-}$$, meaning it has a negative charge so when a hydrogen ion $$H^+$$ (a proton) comes along it is attracted and creates a stable and neutral water molecule $$H_2O$$ but it can also create a monoprotic hydronium $$H_3O^+$$. There is a constant equilibrium reaction in water $$H_2O + H^+ \leftrightarrow H_3O^+$$ meaning it changes back and forth because water acts as a base and an acid.

briefly the above states that :
water is a buffer system if ANY ions of any other element/compound are present
that means for example (caps means more, / means less)
standard: h+ + oh- -> h20
excess H+ : H+ + /oh- -> h20 ) due to there being more acid, the system automatically balances this addition of H+ by using some of the OH-, to creates more H20
the reverse would occur if more OH- was added.

(for chemists out there, I know that is not the buffer system equation, but it is a simple way to describe it )

Due to this, it literally depends on how many hydrogen ions are present in the environment of the OH- even if there is only one, one water molecule will form. think of it as : 'The oh- wants to be ph neutral, so it wants a H+ to become H20'
The only way to get OH- in a place where it could become water is for the OH- to be in excess.

I realise this is very very simple. but i think it may help

Oxygen is diatomic. It only needs to receive two electrons to be in a "stable" state like the noble gases, which have an outer electron shell of 8 - oxygen has 6. So when 2 hydrogen atoms come along, oxygen is quite happy to bond with these. This is called Oxidation.