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## Main Question or Discussion Point

I'll get straight to the point - my knowledge is based on Newtonian physics, I have not been introduced to quantum stuff in a classroom setting, only in casual conversation. I am in physics 111 at a university (calc-based), so keep in mind that I have not been introduced to most of the topics I’m delving in to. Still, I am very interested (and intrigued) by this sort of physics, and have a few elementary questions that are way above my head.

I have two questions that relate to each other;

Q1: According to Newton's laws, perpetual motion is impossible. However, what I do not understand is the force that drives subatomic particles. What force is exerted on electrons to make them move about the nucleus? I understand things work differently at this level (where quantum mechanics comes in), however to me it just doesn't make sense.

Q2: I remember always being told that light has mass - this is why light cannot escape a black hole. Einstein said that light accelerates instantaneously to 299,792,458 m/s. He also said that if you were to hop on a bike and petal to 9/10ths the speed of light, the light will still travel away from you at the speed of light. This makes sense, but what I don't understand is what determines that speed, and also what force is expended on light to propel it to that speed in any situation?

Obviously, Newton’s laws no longer apply at this level. I would like to at least understand the vague concept behind my questions. But then again, I ask a complicated question, I should get a complicated answer….so me asking to put this in layman’s terms is like telling you to convert apples to oranges. Replies are greatly appreciated

Thanks!

I have two questions that relate to each other;

Q1: According to Newton's laws, perpetual motion is impossible. However, what I do not understand is the force that drives subatomic particles. What force is exerted on electrons to make them move about the nucleus? I understand things work differently at this level (where quantum mechanics comes in), however to me it just doesn't make sense.

Q2: I remember always being told that light has mass - this is why light cannot escape a black hole. Einstein said that light accelerates instantaneously to 299,792,458 m/s. He also said that if you were to hop on a bike and petal to 9/10ths the speed of light, the light will still travel away from you at the speed of light. This makes sense, but what I don't understand is what determines that speed, and also what force is expended on light to propel it to that speed in any situation?

Obviously, Newton’s laws no longer apply at this level. I would like to at least understand the vague concept behind my questions. But then again, I ask a complicated question, I should get a complicated answer….so me asking to put this in layman’s terms is like telling you to convert apples to oranges. Replies are greatly appreciated

Thanks!