Comparing Reactivity of Chemical Groups: OH-R to O_4S-R

In summary, the different chemical groups attached to the same position can greatly affect the speed of reactions. For aromatic substitution, more negative groups tend to make a faster reaction, while for nucleophilic substitution, the stability of the leaving group is key. When comparing substances with different chemical groups attached to the same position, it is important to consider the type of reaction being studied.
  • #1
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There are several substanecs different only in a chemical group linked to the same opsition for all those substances. how can i know which one reacts fastest ?

ie , OH-R, ON_2-R, O_3P-R, O_4S-R...

Thanks
 
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  • #2
Chuckj said:
There are several substanecs different only in a chemical group linked to the same opsition for all those substances. how can i know which one reacts fastest ?

OH-R, ON_2-R, O_3P-R, O_4S-R...

It depends what you are trying to do.

If it's aromatic substitution, more negative stuff connected to the aromatic makes a faster reaction. OH on a benzene ring is a very strong activating group, so phenol will react quickly. Same deal with aniline, NH2 is a strong activating group. NO2 on a benzene ring is a strong deactivating group (the oxygens make the nitrogen positive), so nitrobenzene is a slouch when it comes to reactions.

If it's nucleophilic substitution, the speed is determined by the stability of the leaving group. OH is a horrible leaving group, so that is a slow reaction. SO4H is an excellent leaving group, so that will leave quickly. Water is an even better leaving group, so using acid around oxygens makes stuff happen faster (true for both organic and inorganic).
 
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  • #3
Thank you very much,
But what if I have substances like

OH-R-COOH
O2N-R-COOH
O4P-R-COOH
...
how can i explain then ?
 
  • #4
which reaction are you referring to?
 

What is the purpose of comparing the reactivity of chemical groups OH-R and O4S-R?

The purpose of this comparison is to understand the differences in reactivity between two functional groups, OH-R and O4S-R. This can help in predicting the behavior of these groups in various chemical reactions and their potential applications in different industries.

How is the reactivity of OH-R and O4S-R determined?

The reactivity of these chemical groups is determined by performing experiments and analyzing the rate of reaction under different conditions. This can involve measuring the speed of reaction, product yield, and other factors to determine the relative reactivity of each group.

What factors can affect the reactivity of OH-R and O4S-R?

The reactivity of these groups can be affected by various factors such as the presence of other functional groups, the nature of the solvent, temperature, and the concentration of reactants. Some groups may also exhibit different reactivity depending on the type of reaction being studied.

What are some potential applications of OH-R and O4S-R based compounds?

Compounds containing OH-R and O4S-R groups have a wide range of applications in industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and materials science. OH-R groups are commonly found in alcohols and sugars, while O4S-R groups are present in sulfonic acids and their derivatives, which have uses in detergents, dyes, and other products.

Are there any safety concerns associated with OH-R and O4S-R?

Both OH-R and O4S-R groups can have hazardous properties, depending on the specific compound and its concentration. OH-R groups can be flammable, while O4S-R groups can be corrosive and toxic. It is important to handle these compounds with proper safety precautions and follow all guidelines and regulations when working with them.

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