# Homework Help: Complex Numbers 2

1. Sep 26, 2007

### Oblio

Consider the complex number z=e$$_{i\theta}$$ = cos$$\theta$$+isin$$\theta.$$ By evaluating z$$^{2}$$ two different ways, prove the trig identities cos2$$\theta$$ = cos$$^{2}$$$$\theta$$ - sin$$^{2}$$$$\theta$$ and sin2$$\theta$$ = 2sin$$\theta$$cos$$\theta$$.

A question about the approach to this question:
How do you guys approach the task of 'evaluating' something, when told to do so, like here.
I find myself doing random manipulations without knowledge of whether the road I'm on is even close to the correct path or not.
Evaluate seems like such a general instruction...

Anyways,
If I square z I get;
z$$^{2}$$ = cos$$\theta$$$$^{2}$$ + i$$^{2}$$sin$$\theta$$$$^{2}$$

z$$^{2}$$ = cos$$\theta$$$$^{2}$$ - sin$$\theta$$$$^{2}$$

If I sub z$$^{2}$$ back in I get 0 so that's wrong.

Is the use of the 'e definition' necessary for this? I kind of want to see how I ought to be approaching this 'evaluation'.

Thanks, as always

2. Sep 26, 2007

### neutrino

How??

If $$z = \cos{\theta}+\imath\sin{\theta}$$, then $$z^2 = \left(\cos{\theta}+\imath\sin{\theta}\right)^2 \neq \cos^2{\theta}+\imath^2\sin^2{\theta}$$.

Square that. Then use the other way of evaluating a complex number raised to some power, i.e., de Moiver's formula. Equate the two.

Last edited: Sep 26, 2007
3. Sep 26, 2007

### Oblio

Am I allowed to do this?

isin$$\theta$$$$^{2}$$

=-sin$$\theta$$$$^{2}$$ ?

4. Sep 26, 2007

### neutrino

The way you have written is quite ambiguous. But if you mean $$\left(\imath\sin{\theta}\right)^2$$, then it is equal to $$-\sin^2{\theta}$$.

P.S. You need not enclose each term of LaTeX code within 'tex' tags. It is enough if you do it for each line of code. Example: Enclosing this - \left(\imath\sin{\theta}\right)^2 - within tex tags will produce $$\left(\imath\sin{\theta}\right)^2$$.

5. Sep 26, 2007

### Oblio

lol thanks!
It just does that when I click the latex icon each time.. your saying you write it all out manually?

6. Sep 26, 2007

### Oblio

I'm still stuck with:

z$$^{2}$$ = cos$$^{2}$$$$\theta$$ + 2isin$$^{2}$$$$\theta$$ - sin$$^{2}$$$$\theta$$

You'll see I still did it the long way if you quote:P

7. Sep 26, 2007

### neutrino

While I mostly do it manually(click n' latex is only a recent feature), I'm not asking you to do it manually.

When I click on any icon, what I get is that piece of code (say, \frac{}{} for fraction) within tex codes. The cursor is still within the those tags, so when I click on another icon, only its code is printed within the same set of tags. When I want to do a new line, I move the cursor outside the first set of tex tags.

8. Sep 26, 2007

### neutrino

Shouldn't it be $$\cos^2{\theta} + 2\imath\cos{\theta}\sin{\theta} - \sin^2{\theta}$$?

9. Sep 26, 2007

### Oblio

yeah, sorry. Typo

10. Sep 26, 2007

### neutrino

Did you also find the other expression using de Moivre's theorem/formula?

11. Sep 26, 2007

### Oblio

oh i equate the 2 just for one of the two im looking for? I thought that was for the other equation

12. Sep 26, 2007

### neutrino

What do you get when you equate the two?

13. Sep 26, 2007

### Oblio

I've gotten to

cos2$$\theta$$=cos2$$\theta$$-isin2$$\theta$$+2isin$$\thetacos\theta$$

14. Sep 26, 2007

### Oblio

im realizing now thats wrong isnt it..

15. Sep 26, 2007

### neutrino

When is a + ib = c + id? (a,b,c,d are real)

16. Sep 26, 2007

### Oblio

whennn...
a=c, b=d?

17. Sep 26, 2007

### neutrino

Right.

So when you equate cos(2t) + isin(2t) and cos^2(t) + 2isin(t)cos(t) - sin^2(t)...?

(using 't' instead of theta.)

18. Sep 26, 2007

### Oblio

well if i use what im trying to prove,
cos(2t) = cos^2(t)-sin^2(t)
and sin(2t) = 2sintcost

19. Sep 26, 2007

### Oblio

but doesnt this method require that which im proving, to prove it?

20. Sep 26, 2007

### neutrino

No. You're just equating the real and imaginary parts of the complex numbers. All you're using is the definition of equality of two complex numbers. (a = c, b = d)