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Conductivity in metal oxides

  1. Jul 28, 2015 #1
    I was reading about semiconductor transparent conducting oxides and I found this why p-type conductivity is limited in TCOs. But I could not understand its meaning please someone explain me how the holes are localized at valance band edge and how dominated by oxygen- 2p levels?

    ''Owing to the strong ionic nature of metal-oxygen bonding, holes are typically localized at the valence band
    edge, which is dominated by oxygen-2p levels therefore limiting p-type conduction
    . Two methods have been
    suggested to enhance the co-valency between metal oxygen bonding, thereby limiting localization:1 choosing cations having closed d-shells of energy comparable to that of the oxygen-2p levels (i.e., Cu+, Ag+, and Au+, especially when found in linear coordination with oxygen2), and choosing a structure in which oxygen adopts tetrahedral coordination''
  2. jcsd
  3. Aug 2, 2015 #2
    I do not think this statement is very precise. If holes tend to be localized, they would be localized in a gap state close to but not right at the valence band edge. It is also not true that hole localization limits the p-type conductivity. Take for example p-type conduction in perovskite oxides. In many cases it proceeds via hole conduction and these holes are self-trapped on oxygen sites and are derived from 2p states of oxygen.

    Could you cite the source paper of this statement?
  4. Aug 5, 2015 #3
    here is that paper

    Attached Files:

  5. Aug 9, 2015 #4
    I think the sentence highlighted in red encompasses too many information and in fact recent work on hole-self-trapping brought new insights beyond 2004 at the time of writing this paper. In fact even the concept that covalency of metal-oxygen bond reduces self-trapping is questionable. Take for example rare-earth nickelates. The bonding between Ni and O has a clear covalent character, in spite of this hole trapping on oxygen occurs.
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