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what_are_electrons

*** PART I. ***

THREE QUESTIONS ON "COULOMB'S LAW"

The value of the constant "K" in what appears to be the "ORIGINAL" Coulomb's Law depends upon the nature of the medium.

[ K = 1/4pi*epsilon ] where epsilon is the "absolute permittivity of the medium".

In many modern books, I find that "K" is defined as:

[ K = 1/4pi*epsilon(zero) ] where epsilon(zero) is the "permittivity of free space".

In 2 physics dictionaries (Oxford's publ'd in 2000 and Penguin's publ'd in 1991), Henri Semat's book "Intro to Atomic & Nuclear Physics" (1960) and on one web-site ( http://www.plus2physics.com/electrostatics/study_material.asp [Broken] ) I find "K" defined as: [ K = 1/4pi*epsilon ] where "epsilon" is the "absolute permittivity of the medium".

QUESTION #1:

Which of these equations for Coulomb's Law is correct?

QUESTION #2:

What is the definition of "free space"?

Continuing on:

Relative permittivity is defined as epsilon(r), where: [ epsilon(r) = epsilon / epsilon(zero) ]

and Epsilon(r) is the "Dielectric Constant".

The "Epsilon of the absolute permittivity of the medium" is often assumed to be equal to the "epsilon(zero) of the permittivity of free space" which, until recently, seemed like a reasonable approximation, but recent measurements of dielectric constants reveal that Epsilon(r) values can be much larger than 1.

Dielectric constants (epsilon(r) values) for gases and liquids range from 1 to 20 normally, but for some materials (eg ice and some liquids) the dielectric constant rises to 100-200. For some Inorganic Compounds the dielectric constant is much much higher.

For example:

SnTe has epsilon(r) = 1,770

SbSI has epsilon(r) = 2,000

SrTiO3 has epsilon(r) = 2,080

Ferroelectric materials have dielectric constants >4,000

Pb3MgNb2O9 has epsilon(r) = 10,000

KSrNbO3 has a dielectric constant or epsilon(r) = 34,000 !!!

QUESTION #3:

Since the difference in results of Coulomb's Force law can decrease the Force by a factor of 10-5,000 or more even, what are the ramifications for forces calculated from the interactions between the proton and the electron in the hydrogen as an initial test case? (More complex atoms will naturally be different.)

*** PART II ***

TWO QUESTIONS ON THE EFFECT OF THE NEED TO USE DIFFERENT "EPSILON" VALUES with respect to the "FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT (FSC)" and THE "QED" VALUES BASED ON THE "FSC"

The " Fine Structure Constant " seems to be directly dependent on the Coulomb's Force Law constant "K" as defined by Sommerfeld's original set of ratio'd constants:

[ alpha = e*e / 4pi*epsilon(zero)*hbar*c ]

The Fine Structure Constant (FSC) is one of the key constants in QED and it is used / involved in many QM calculations. It serves as a kind of foundation rock for QED. For that reason many scientists have used various methods to improve the precision of the FSC. As a result the FSC has been derived from various measurements and now enjoys much greater precision.

Below are the known FSC values as measured (but without uncertainties):

TABLE I: Inverse values of the fine stucture constant measured from:

1. de Broglie wavelength of slow neutrons----------------137.03601082

2. AC Josephson effect in superconductor junction--------137.059770

3. Quantum Hall effect-----------------------------------137.0360037

4. Anomalous magnetic moment of electron---------------137.03599976

5. Anomalous magnetic moment of positron---------------137.03599976

6. Muonium atom----------------------------------------137.0359940

7. Helium spectrum--------------------------------------137.035853

8. Velocity of hydrogen 1s electron /velocity of light-------137.0388

(All values were obtained from book called "Hydrogen" published by Harvard University Press in 2002 by John S. Rigden)

If Coulomb's law should be using "epsilon(zero)" then everything should be safe and correct, and we can ignore the following two questions.

If, however, Coulomb's law should be using "epsilon" and not "epsilon(zero)", then the questions are:

QUESTION #3:

What are the effects on the Fine Structure Constant?

QUESTION #4:

What are the effects on the rest of QED?

*****

As the author of this Internet Based Posting I hold all copyrights as defined by the Berne Act on copyrights that is valid and enforceable in 117 nations. All rights are reserved.

THREE QUESTIONS ON "COULOMB'S LAW"

The value of the constant "K" in what appears to be the "ORIGINAL" Coulomb's Law depends upon the nature of the medium.

[ K = 1/4pi*epsilon ] where epsilon is the "absolute permittivity of the medium".

In many modern books, I find that "K" is defined as:

[ K = 1/4pi*epsilon(zero) ] where epsilon(zero) is the "permittivity of free space".

In 2 physics dictionaries (Oxford's publ'd in 2000 and Penguin's publ'd in 1991), Henri Semat's book "Intro to Atomic & Nuclear Physics" (1960) and on one web-site ( http://www.plus2physics.com/electrostatics/study_material.asp [Broken] ) I find "K" defined as: [ K = 1/4pi*epsilon ] where "epsilon" is the "absolute permittivity of the medium".

QUESTION #1:

Which of these equations for Coulomb's Law is correct?

QUESTION #2:

What is the definition of "free space"?

Continuing on:

Relative permittivity is defined as epsilon(r), where: [ epsilon(r) = epsilon / epsilon(zero) ]

and Epsilon(r) is the "Dielectric Constant".

The "Epsilon of the absolute permittivity of the medium" is often assumed to be equal to the "epsilon(zero) of the permittivity of free space" which, until recently, seemed like a reasonable approximation, but recent measurements of dielectric constants reveal that Epsilon(r) values can be much larger than 1.

Dielectric constants (epsilon(r) values) for gases and liquids range from 1 to 20 normally, but for some materials (eg ice and some liquids) the dielectric constant rises to 100-200. For some Inorganic Compounds the dielectric constant is much much higher.

For example:

SnTe has epsilon(r) = 1,770

SbSI has epsilon(r) = 2,000

SrTiO3 has epsilon(r) = 2,080

Ferroelectric materials have dielectric constants >4,000

Pb3MgNb2O9 has epsilon(r) = 10,000

KSrNbO3 has a dielectric constant or epsilon(r) = 34,000 !!!

QUESTION #3:

Since the difference in results of Coulomb's Force law can decrease the Force by a factor of 10-5,000 or more even, what are the ramifications for forces calculated from the interactions between the proton and the electron in the hydrogen as an initial test case? (More complex atoms will naturally be different.)

*** PART II ***

TWO QUESTIONS ON THE EFFECT OF THE NEED TO USE DIFFERENT "EPSILON" VALUES with respect to the "FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT (FSC)" and THE "QED" VALUES BASED ON THE "FSC"

The " Fine Structure Constant " seems to be directly dependent on the Coulomb's Force Law constant "K" as defined by Sommerfeld's original set of ratio'd constants:

[ alpha = e*e / 4pi*epsilon(zero)*hbar*c ]

The Fine Structure Constant (FSC) is one of the key constants in QED and it is used / involved in many QM calculations. It serves as a kind of foundation rock for QED. For that reason many scientists have used various methods to improve the precision of the FSC. As a result the FSC has been derived from various measurements and now enjoys much greater precision.

Below are the known FSC values as measured (but without uncertainties):

TABLE I: Inverse values of the fine stucture constant measured from:

1. de Broglie wavelength of slow neutrons----------------137.03601082

2. AC Josephson effect in superconductor junction--------137.059770

3. Quantum Hall effect-----------------------------------137.0360037

4. Anomalous magnetic moment of electron---------------137.03599976

5. Anomalous magnetic moment of positron---------------137.03599976

6. Muonium atom----------------------------------------137.0359940

7. Helium spectrum--------------------------------------137.035853

8. Velocity of hydrogen 1s electron /velocity of light-------137.0388

(All values were obtained from book called "Hydrogen" published by Harvard University Press in 2002 by John S. Rigden)

If Coulomb's law should be using "epsilon(zero)" then everything should be safe and correct, and we can ignore the following two questions.

If, however, Coulomb's law should be using "epsilon" and not "epsilon(zero)", then the questions are:

QUESTION #3:

What are the effects on the Fine Structure Constant?

QUESTION #4:

What are the effects on the rest of QED?

*****

As the author of this Internet Based Posting I hold all copyrights as defined by the Berne Act on copyrights that is valid and enforceable in 117 nations. All rights are reserved.

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