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CSL-1 cosmic string Hubble view due 2006 February

  1. Jan 26, 2006 #1
    *************************************************************
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/17

    CSL-1 cosmic string Hubble view due 2006 February,
    T Vachaspati, D Huterer, C Hogan: James Renner, freetimes.com:
    primordial H filaments easily visible in HUDF background, Murray 2005.12.27

    http://www.freetimes.com/modules.php?op=modload&name=
    News&file=article&sid=2809

    Free Times: Ohio's premium news, arts and entertainment weekly

    Tuesday, December 27, 2005 01:41 AM

    Master of the Universe:
    A local professor's legacy hinges on a galaxy far, far away
    By James Renner jrenner@freetimes.com 216-479-2033 X 253

    Vachaspati : [ photo ]
    The cosmic string "could be one of the greatest discoveries in history."

    NORMALLY, debating the nature of the universe happened in the afternoon.
    That's when Tanmay Vachaspati stepped into the office next to his -
    the one occupied by postdoctoral student Dragan Huterer -
    armed with a bag of almonds and an open mind.
    Other times these discussions happened over Friday dinners
    at some East Side restaurant with the other
    Case Western Reserve University physicists.
    Occasionally, they would rant about things like "dark energy"
    over drinks at the bar.

    But one morning in August 2003, routine was discarded.
    Vachaspati was too excited to wait for lunch.
    The physics department at Case was buzzing with conversation.
    He met up with Huterer over a cup of coffee to talk about the news.

    A team of European scientists had just announced a tantalizing discovery.
    A photograph appeared to show two identical galaxies sitting side by side
    in the heavens. Upon closer inspection, though, it seemed they were actually
    one galaxy, its image split in two by some massive invisible object
    floating in the void between Cleveland and the edge of the universe.
    It could be only one thing: a fabled "cosmic string."

    "What can we do to verify this?" asked Vachaspati.

    Huterer understood his mentor's excitement and desire for quick
    confirmation.
    Cosmic strings are remnants of the early universe,
    strange gossamers formed just after the Big Bang.
    If the universe is a giant lake,
    think of these cosmic strings as the cracks that form in the ice
    when it freezes over.
    They are millions of miles long and thinner than a spaghetti noodle.
    Each centimeter of a cosmic string weighs as much as Mount Everest;
    they are so heavy they bend light traveling near them.
    Cosmic strings gave structure to the early universe,
    binding it together, forming galaxies in their gravitational wake.

    Vachaspati had been searching for one for nearly 20 years.

    Albert Einstein died still searching for a single theory to explain
    how the universe works. If the experiment Huterer and Vachaspati
    devised in their offices at Case goes as planned,
    Einstein may finally be able to rest in peace.
    It's four miles from Vachaspati's house in Shaker Heights
    to his office on the campus of Case Western Reserve University,
    but the physics professor likes to walk.
    Along the way, he listens to tracks of classical Indian vocals
    he downloads from the Internet.

    "This is a great invention," says Vachaspati, showing off his iPod.
    "Just beautiful."

    During these walks he finds inspiration, new theories
    to explain the mysteries of the universe.
    "It's undisturbed time. I can just think. That's when the best ideas come."

    His office at Case is spartan.
    Vachaspati sits behind a large wooden desk, leaning forward
    so his dark bangs hang out over eyes wide-open with excitement.
    He looks 25, but is really 46.
    On the wall is a letter from his 4-year-old daughter.
    It reads: "Dear papa you are a hard working man.
    You wright long things. I wish I could read Pheseces."

    It's her attempt to spell physics, a word she already associates with dad.
    Hanging by the door is a framed photograph of Vachaspati's father
    standing next to Niels Bohr, the father of quantum mechanics,
    a celebrity in the world of theoretical physics. It was Vachaspati's
    father - and a magazine subscription -
    that propelled him to America in 1980.

    In Allahabad, India, it was expensive to subscribe to magazines
    from the United States. But Vachaspati's father, also a physicist,
    wanted a subscription to a particular science magazine that came free
    to new members of the American Physical Society.
    So Vachaspati joined APS as a student member to get the magazine
    for his father. At the time, information on student members of APS
    was given to universities. Soon, Vachaspati was sifting through
    brochures from American colleges. He filled out and returned
    the applications on a whim. Stony Brook in Long Island and
    Tufts in Boston responded with scholarships.

    "The only American in town was a psychology professor,"
    says Vachaspati. "I asked him which college I should go to.
    He said, 'Oh, I like Boston better.'"

    When it came time to write his Ph.D. at Tufts,
    he devised theories to detect cosmic strings.
    These ideas formed the basis of the European discovery.
    The team cited Vachaspati in a paper
    they published in a Russian science journal.
    Vachaspati's work in Cleveland is not limited to hunting cosmic strings,
    though. During a recent commute, the physicist thought up a way
    to detect Hawking radiation - energy that is ejected from black holes -
    in the lab. It involved the creation of something called a "dumbhole,"
    an object that gobbles up sound instead of light.

    A five-minute-long conversation with this man will blow your mind.
    And he has the patience to explain his theories
    to the average armchair nerd. He wants people to understand his work
    because he's so excited about the possibilities -
    especially this potential piece of cosmic string
    floating in the void of space.

    "I think it could be one of the greatest discoveries in history," he says.
    There is no doubt that CSL-1, the name given to the image
    of these two identical galaxies, is something odd.
    Skeptics say that's all it is, just a pair of galaxies
    with remarkable similarities that happen to be nearby each other.
    Vachaspati and Huterer hope to silence the opposition
    with a new theory they devised in their offices at Case.

    "If it's a string, it must be running through this whole region,"
    says Vachaspati, pointing to a star chart.

    "If you look closely, you should be able to see more pairs," says Huterer.
    Simple by concept, but this pair of scientists wanted to make it testable.
    So they crunched numbers. Huterer understood the capabilities
    of telescopes like the Hubble Space Telescope
    from his experience searching the skies for signs of dark energy.
    Vachaspati understood the nature of cosmic strings.
    Working together, a testable theory presented itself.
    According to their equations, if a telescope was pointed
    in the direction of CSL-1,
    five out of 100 objects nearby should also be split,
    appearing as identical twins or fractured images.

    In February, their theory will put to the test by an independent team
    led by Craig Hogan, a physicist at the University of Washington.
    His team has reserved time on Hubble.
    The satellite will take detailed photographs of CSL-1
    during the course of three orbits, using two different light filters.
    "Conceivably, if it really is a string, we could see something spectacular,"
    says Hogan. "We're looking for more objects that are doubled
    or have sharp edges. That would be the smoking gun.
    It's an important bit of fundamental physics
    that might be staring us in the face."

    And if the images prove Vachaspati's theories?
    "All the telescopes in the world will be pointing at the thing," says Hogan.

    Huterer is more to the point.
    "It will certainly win a Nobel prize," he says from his office
    at the University of Chicago. Ultimately, the laurels will go
    to the European team that discovered CSL-1,
    but his mentor's work in Cleveland set them in motion.

    "I'm just waiting for the results," says Vachaspati.
    "I theorized about these things 20 years ago. Now, they're getting hot."

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    Cleveland Free Times
    800 W. St. Clair Avenue - 2nd Floor
    Cleveland , OH 44113-1266 216-479-2033
    *************************************************************

    http://www.cwru.edu/
    http://www.phys.cwru.edu/faculty/index.php?vachaspati
    Tanmay Vachaspati Professor of Physics
    Ph.D., Tufts University (1985)
    txv7@cwru.edu ; Phone: 216-368-0222
    Cosmology, Particle Physics and Astrophysics

    Interests Publications
    RESEARCH INTERESTS:
    Using cosmological observations to search for topological defects
    and primordial magnetic fields,
    including Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
    temperature anisotropy and polarization, gravitational lensing,
    and gravitational waves.
    Cosmology of topological defects.
    Topological defects in particle physics
    especially the standard electroweak model and their role in baryogenesis.
    Classification of topological defects. Defect interactions.
    Generation of primordial magnetic fields.
    The topology of such magnetic fields.
    Inflation, eternal inflation and quantum cosmology.
    Cosmology in the laboratory and the design of experiments
    to test ideas in quantum field theory in curved spacetime
    such as Hawking radiation.
    A dual model of the known fundamental particles.

    http://kicp.uchicago.edu/~dhuterer/

    Dragan Huterer
    Astronomy and Astrophysics Department
    University of Chicago 5640 S. Ellis Ave. Chicago, IL 60637
    dhuterer[at]kicp.uchicago.edu ; Office phone: (773) 834-0392

    I am an NSF postdoctoral fellow at Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
    and the the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
    at the University of Chicago. My field of research is theoretical cosmology.
    Before this, I was a postdoc in the Particle-Astrophysics Group
    at Case Western Reserve University,
    before that a graduate student at the University of Chicago,
    before that an undergraduate at MIT,
    and still before that a student at Gimnazija "Ognjen Prica"
    in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (then Yugoslavia).

    I work on trying to understand the nature and properties of "dark energy",
    a mysterious component that makes up about 70%
    of the energy in the universe and makes it accelerate.
    This includes using type Ia supernova measurements,
    large-scale structure surveys and weak and strong gravitational lensing
    as tools of precision cosmology.
    I am also interested in testing the gaussianity and isotropy
    of the cosmic microwave background radiation.
    And I am a member of the SNAP collaboration,
    a team that proposes to study dark energy using an ultimate probe --
    a new space telescope, custom-built for this purpose.

    http://www.phys.cwru.edu/projects/mpvectors/#contact

    Craig J. Copi mpvectors@www.phys.cwru.edu

    http://www.phys.cwru.edu/projects/mpvectors/#paper3
    Paper 3 August 2, 2005

    A paper collecting much of the work involving
    multipole vectors performed by us and by others.
    It provides a review of the multipole vector formalism and extensions to it.
    We focus mainly on the lowest cosmological multipoles (l=2 and 3)
    and show that alignment between the planes they define
    and the ecliptic persists at > 99.9% C.L.
    We explore many other alignments and extend the analysis
    in ways to address some systematics.
    This paper can be found on astro-ph and has been submitted
    to Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

    You can download the paper with high resolution (and thus large)
    figures as either hi-res postscript (compressed, approximately 980kB)
    or hi-res pdf (approximately 850kB).

    http://www.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0508047/

    Astrophysics, abstract
    astro-ph/0508047
    From: Craig Copi cjc5@cwru.edu ;
    Date: Mon, 1 Aug 2005 20:07:39 GMT (282kb)

    On the large-angle anomalies of the microwave sky
    Authors:
    C. J. Copi (1), cjc5@cwru.edu ;
    D. Huterer (2), dhuterer[at]kicp.uchicago.edu ;
    D. J. Schwarz (3), dominik.schwarz@cern.ch ;
    G. D. Starkman (1) glenn.starkman@case.edu ;
    Dominik J. Schwarz, Glenn D. Starkman, Dragan Huterer, and Craig J. Copi

    (1) Case Western Reserve University,
    (2) University of Chicago,
    (3) Universitat Bielefeld)
    Comments: 26 pages, 7 figures. High resolution figures,
    multipole vector code and other information can be found at this http URL

    [Abridged] We apply the multipole vector framework to full-sky maps
    derived from the first year WMAP data.
    We significantly extend our earlier work
    showing that the two lowest cosmologically interesting multipoles,
    l=2 and 3, are not statistically isotropic.
    These results are compared to the findings obtained using related methods.
    In particular, the planes of the quadrupole and the octopole
    are unexpectedly aligned.
    Moreover, the combined quadrupole plus octopole is surprisingly
    aligned with the geometry and direction of motion of the solar system:
    the plane they define is perpendicular to the ecliptic plane
    and to the plane defined by the dipole direction,
    and the ecliptic plane carefully separates stronger from weaker extrema,
    running within a couple of degrees of the null-contour
    between a maximum and a minimum over more than 120 deg of the sky.
    Even given the alignment of the quadrupole and octopole with each other,
    we find that their alignment with the ecliptic is unlikely at >98% C.L.,
    and argue that it is in fact unlikely at >99.9% C.L.
    We explore the role of foregrounds showing that the known
    Galactic foregrounds are unlikely to lead to these correlations.
    Multipole vectors, like individual a_lm, are very sensitive to sky cuts,
    and we demonstrate that analyses using cut skies induce relatively large
    errors,
    thus weakening the observed correlations
    but preserving their consistency with the full-sky results.
    Finally we apply our tests to COBE cut-sky maps
    and briefly extend the analysis to higher multipoles.
    If the correlations we observe are indeed a signal of non-cosmic origin,
    then the lack of low-l power will very likely be exacerbated,
    with important consequences for our understanding of cosmology on large
    scales.
    Full-text: PostScript, PDF, or Other formats

    Anne M. Green
    Stefan Hofmann shofmann@perimeterinstitute.ca ;
    Lidia Pieri lidia@physto.se ;

    http://www.astro.washington.edu/hogan/

    Dr. Craig J. Hogan Professor of Astronomy Professor of Physics
    University of Washington PO Box 351202 Seattle, WA 98195
    206-685-2112 voice 206-685-0403 fax hogan@u.washington.edu ;

    Craig Hogan graduated from Harvard College and went on to
    King's College, Cambridge, where he earned his Ph.D. in 1980.
    He held postdoctoral prize fellowships at the University of Chicago
    and Caltech, and was on the faculty at the University of Arizona's
    Steward Observatory before moving to Seattle in 1990.
    >From 1995 to 2001 he served as Chair of Astronomy

    and in 2001-2002 as Divisional Dean of Natural Sciences
    in the College of Arts and Sciences.
    >From 2002 to 2005 he served as UW's Vice Provost for Research.

    He has served on boards and advisory committees
    for many agencies, laboratories, and research organizations.

    Hogan's scholarship in cosmology has been recognized
    by an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellowship
    and an Alexander von Humboldt Research Award.
    As a member of the High-z Supernova Search Team
    he was a co-discoverer of the cosmic "Dark Energy"
    causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate.
    Currently, he is a member of the International Science Team for LISA,
    a space mission under development to detect gravitational radiation.
    Hogan's current theoretical research centers
    on the astrophysical phenomenology of string theory and quantum gravity,
    for example in the cosmic background radiation anisotropy,
    and the generation and detection of stochastic
    gravitational wave backgrounds from events in the early universe
    such as phase transitions and the formation of our 3-dimensional space.
    Recent technical papers are posted at the astro-ph archive.
    His primer on cosmology, "The Little Book of the Big Bang" ,
    published by Springer-Verlag, has been translated into
    Dutch, Portuguese, German, Italian, Polish, and Greek.
    *************************************************************

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/16
    skeptical note re "RML-1" photo # 31, 3.75 arc-sec wide, from Hubble
    Ultra Deep Field, on www.Flickr.com AstroDeep site: Motl:
    Murray 2005.11.21

    http://motls.blogspot.com/2005/11/cosmic-string-or-dark-matter.html

    Lubos Motl's Reference Frame blog

    http://schwinger.harvard.edu/~motl/sf/frames.html

    Lubos Motl motl@feynman.harvard.edu
    (pronounce: "Loo-bosch Maw-tull")

    Friday, November 11, 2005
    Cosmic string or dark matter

    I just received a mail from Rich Murray who has taken many pictures of the
    region near CSL-1, the "cosmic string lensing" candidate.

    See his pictures at flickr.com

    For example, the newest picture #31 at the top includes "RML-1" which
    stands for "Rich Murray Lens 1", but I remain somewhat unconvinced
    that this rather amateurish picture proves anything.

    The primary recipient of the e-mail was Malcolm Fairbairn who just
    posted an interesting paper arguing that if the CSL-1 event is caused
    by lensing, it is likely to be a cosmic string rather than a dark
    matter filament because in the latter case, the corresponding tidally
    disrupted dark matter halo would have to be as heavy as the Milky Way
    -- and such a halo seems to be absent in other data.

    This was always our primary worry -- that CSL-1 could be caused by
    lensing by something that just acts as a string but can be of a rather
    conventional origin.

    posted by Lumo at 11:18 PM
    fast comments (2) | Trackback (0); 0 internal comments:
    Post a Comment
    *************************************************************

    November 21, 2005

    Well, "...I remain somewhat unconvinced that this rather amateurish
    picture proves anything." is the highest praise that this absolute
    amateur has so far received since June.

    I was surprised to see the number of visits to the 31 photos on
    www.Flickr.com site, AstroDeep , jumping from just over 200 to now
    866, so I am grateful to know who to credit -- Thanks!

    Only the first 17 photos are from the CSL-1 field, the next two are
    from the Millenium Simulation, then 20 to 31 are selected and imaged
    processed from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. More important than the
    possibility that the double blue galaxy in #31 is lensed by a cosmic
    string, are the myriad bright blue 1-2 pixel (0.03 arc-sec) sources,
    which are always on a faint, but obvious upon scrutiny, fractile 3D
    dark mesh, that is backlit by a uniform faint maroon glow.

    Just 104 views so far of this one -- I welcome all feedback -- no need
    to be positive or even polite, though humor is always appreciated....

    Rich Murray rmforall@comcast.net
    1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 505-501-2298
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/15
    two classes of readily noticeable common, ubiquitous, uniform bright
    blue sources in deep background (Murray mesh) of HUDF, dwarf galaxy
    luminous bare clumps, hyper novae?: 2005.04.01 BG and DM Elmegreen:
    Malcolm Fairbairn: Murray 2005.11.11
    [ You can search the title on Google Groups to find this post. ]
    *************************************************************

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/15
    two classes of readily noticeable common, ubiquitous, uniform bright
    blue sources in deep background (Murray mesh) of HUDF, dwarf galaxy
    luminous bare clumps, hyper novae?: 2005.04.01 BG and DM Elmegreen:
    Malcolm Fairbairn: Murray 2005.11.11
    *************************************************************
     
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