1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data F(r) = r/!!r!!^3 (Sorry but the !! is supposed to imply that its scalar) I found the curl using the cartesian coordinate definition of curl. It came out to be zero. Now the question is, is F path independent? Its silly, becuase if the curl is zero then it does imply that its path independent, however F is not defined when r is zero. So i m confused here. Any help will be deeply appreciated.