1) My understanding is that the output of a DC generator has the form Vmax*|sin(2πft)| for 2 poles. Having more poles makes the output smoother but it would still have ripples. Is this correct? 2) In many places, I have seen the EMF of a DC generator written as: [itex]\phi[/itex] * (NZ/60) * (P/A). What value is given by this expression - is it the maximum, rms or mean value of the voltage?