Can anyone give me a deeper understanding of the above terms in context of colors?
Well, the most basic (and sufficient) characterization of colors is the RGB (red-green-blue) scale. Saturation, hue, contrast and brightness are abstractions and are subjective.
They are not subjective. There is a standard for (at least some) of these terms.
However, I don't have the book where it's written with me..... (doh :uhh: )
You might try This Link for more information on the CIE chormaticity diagram which will answer many of your questions - though hue, brightness, and saturation are more general terms, which the CIE system attempts to make very concrete through a system of color coordinates.
Fully saturated colors are the colors of the rainbow, on the outer edge of the chromaticity diagram. (The colors on the bottom edge of the diagram are also fully saturated, though they are not spectral colors).
The main feature of the chromaticity diagram is that mixing any two colors together will result in a perceived color that lies along the line that joins the two colors together.
The 2-d chromaticity diagram describes only the hue of the color. A full description of a color requires a third parameter, the luminance.
There is some more general discussion of hue, saturation, and brightness
And This is the "vision" root of the entire webpage based "tree". As you will see if you visit it, there are many aspects to vision and color vision.
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