# Define dynamic equilibrium state

• RPN
In summary, in a dynamic equilibrium state, reaction rates are equal, there is no change in observable properties, and energy and entropy states are in competition with each other. When considering the closed containers, the 2L container with 15mL of water held at 30 degrees Celsius has the greatest vapour pressure due to the highest temperature. When two substances are completely miscible, randomness is increased and heat is liberated in the dissolving process. The tendency towards minimum energy favors the separated pure substances. In view of these tendencies, water and ethanol are completely miscible because an equilibrium has been formed between the two systems, where the increase in entropy allows them to mix together and the decrease in enthalpy helps the system to stay in
RPN
I have to define dynamic equilibrium state in terms of a) reaction rates b) change in observable properties and c) energy and entropy state

I also have to explain in which of the following closed containers has the greatest vapour pressure.
the choices are a) 1L container with 5mL of water held at 20degreescelcius
b) 2L container with 15mL of water held at 30degcel
c) 3L containter with 500mL at 25degcel

finally, ethanol and water are completely miscible; that is, they dissolve in each other in all propertions:
a) when the two substances are mixed, is randomness increased or decreased?
b) heat is liberated in the dissolving process. Does the tendency towards minimum energy favour the separated pure substances, or the solution of one in the other?
c) In view of the tendicies listed in a) and b) above, explain why water and ethanol are completley miscible.

Reaction rates are equal in a dynamic equilibrium state. The concentration of reactants and products remain constant over time due to forward and reverse reactions occurring simultaneously. Two opposing processes are going on at an equal rate and the system undergoes no observable changes.
b) Change in observable properties in an equilibrium state is none. The forward and reverse reactions are equal and no changes can be seen.
c) Energy and entropy states are in competition with each other. When a system is in equilibrium the two opposing drives have said to have reached a compromise and are equal.
2)The b equation would have the greatest vapour pressure due to the highest temperature. When a stress is added to a system like increased temp. of 30oC the system tries to level to regain equilibrium. This results in an increase in concentration of the vapour state. The increased concentration also increases the pressure. I also used PV= nRT and b was the one with the highest pressure.
3.Randomness would be increased as when two substances are completely miscible. When randomness increases the two substances are allowed to completely mix together. The entropy of the system is increased.
b) General entropy of the system has increased then that can mean that the enthalpy would favour the separated pure substances.
c) With these two points explained we can say that ethanol and water are completely miscible because an equilibrium has been formed between the two systems

. The entropy increase allows the two to mix together and regain balance. The enthalpy decrease then helps the system to stay in this equilibrium.

. The randomness and entropy of the system has increased, and the enthalpy of the system is also in equilibrium. This results in a compromise where the two substances can mix in all proportions without any change in observable properties.

## 1. What is the definition of dynamic equilibrium state?

The dynamic equilibrium state is a state in which the forward and reverse reactions of a chemical reaction occur at equal rates, resulting in no overall change in the concentrations of reactants and products over time.

## 2. How is dynamic equilibrium state different from static equilibrium state?

In a static equilibrium state, reactions have stopped and there is no movement or change in concentrations. In contrast, a dynamic equilibrium state involves continuous movement and exchange of reactants and products at equal rates.

## 3. What factors can affect the establishment of a dynamic equilibrium state?

The factors that can affect the establishment of a dynamic equilibrium state include temperature, pressure, concentration of reactants and products, and the presence of a catalyst.

## 4. Can a dynamic equilibrium state ever be reached in a closed system?

Yes, a dynamic equilibrium state can be reached in a closed system where there is no exchange of matter with the surroundings. However, it may take a longer time to establish compared to an open system where there is continuous exchange of matter.

## 5. How is Le Chatelier's principle related to dynamic equilibrium state?

Le Chatelier's principle states that when a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system will shift in a way that reduces the stress. In a dynamic equilibrium state, this means that if a stress is applied to the system, the equilibrium will shift to maintain equal rates of the forward and reverse reactions.

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