Are there any chemical compounds that include carbon as diamond?
Do you mean something like doped diamond? Otherwise I cannot understand your question; a chemical compound is made of two or more different atoms bound together, so you can have, e.g., C_x H_y and it doesn't matter if C came from graphite or diamond or nanotubes, in the compound it's not that anylonger.
About diamond semiconductors, there are studies on making thin films of them doped for example with boron. It would have very interesting properties: higher speeds, higher working temperatures, with respect to silicon semiconductors, higher operating voltages and smaller devices (diodes, transistors) dimensions with respect to silicon and GaAs semiconductors, even if no device has actually been made yet.
Adamantane. It has the diamond template but hydrogens exist at the vertices of the compound which could be described as the unit cell of diamond. Also look at 'diamondoids'.
That's fascinating, I thought diamond was C4 or carbon bonded with carbon until it was full.
How does it fit a hydrogen in there?
There are carbons at the vertices attached to three other carbons in the compound. The remaining bond is to hydrogen. Sorry if that wasn't clear before.
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