a) If B (magnetic field) is perpendicular to the plane of a circular loop, then is it true that when B increases the induced emf is clockwise and when the B decreases the emf is counterclockwise? Or do you need to know whether it is pointing into/out of the page? Or would you be able to use the graph of B on the z-axis vs time graph to figure out the direction?
b) I am getting confused with emf versus induced emf. Are they the same thing? For instance, in the following equations is "E" induced emf in all of them for the same problem? And if they are, then in a different problem are they all emf or does the equations not apply to emf?