what purpose does that serve. It's exactly this type of behavior that leads me to believe that calculus people are stuck-up self deluded fools. Calculus users catch-phrase handbook "Don't challenge my beliefs because i'm right and you're wrong" "Everyone else believes what I do, you're wrong" "I have a PhD in Electrical Engineering i am smarter than you so you are wrong" i came to this board because i thought i'd find smart people willing to learn, but it's just the same closed minded egotistical jerks everywhere else. very very sad. in parting: you can't even PROVE that because you can't calculate out to infinity. you're just blindly accepting that because it's convenient. but i CAN prove that no matter how many times you cut you ARE left with a non-zero value. it is both actually and logically true.