# Draw the Lewis structure of oxalic acid (H2C2O4)

• physicsss
In summary, the conversation discusses various facts about kidney stones and their composition, as well as the pH ranges of blood and urine. It also includes information about the Lewis structures of oxalic acid and oxalate anion, as well as their respective Ka and Ksp values. Based on this data, a potential treatment for dissolving calcium oxalate kidney stones is suggested, as well as recommendations for preventing their formation. Finally, the conversation ends with a question about the precipitation of calcium oxalate at different pH levels.
physicsss
There are many different types of kidney stones, but the most common is calcium oxalate, CaC2O4. The pH range of blood is 7.2-7.3. The pH of urine ranges from 4 to 8.

Draw the Lewis structure of oxalic acid (H2C2O4) and the oxalate anion (C2O4-2).

H2C2O4 Ka1 = 5.6×10-2, Ka2=5.42×10-5

CaC2O4 Ksp = 1.3 × 10-8

Given the data above, suggest a treatment for dissolving calcium oxalate kidney stones. What would you recommend to prevent the formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones?

I have no idea how to do this. But I managed to draw the lewis diagrams though...

Would there be more precipitation of calcium oxalate at higher pH or lower pH?

Lewis structure of oxalic acid (H2C2O4):

H:C:C:O
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H:C:C:O

The two hydrogen atoms are bonded to the two carbon atoms, which are in turn double-bonded to the two oxygen atoms. The two oxygen atoms are also bonded to each other with a single bond.

Lewis structure of oxalate anion (C2O4-2):
O:C:C:O
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O:C:C:O

The two carbon atoms are double-bonded to each other, and each carbon atom is also bonded to two oxygen atoms with single bonds.

To dissolve calcium oxalate kidney stones, a treatment involving increasing the pH of the urine may be effective. This can be achieved by increasing fluid intake, which will help to dilute the concentration of oxalate in the urine. Additionally, taking medications such as potassium citrate or sodium bicarbonate can help to raise the pH of the urine and make it more alkaline, which can dissolve calcium oxalate stones.

To prevent the formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones, it is important to maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle. This includes drinking plenty of fluids, limiting intake of high-oxalate foods such as spinach, rhubarb, and nuts, and consuming enough calcium to bind with oxalate in the digestive tract before it reaches the kidneys. It is also important to maintain a healthy pH balance in the urine, which can be achieved through a balanced diet and hydration. In some cases, medication may also be prescribed to prevent the formation of kidney stones.

## 1. What is the molecular formula for oxalic acid?

The molecular formula for oxalic acid is H2C2O4.

## 2. How many valence electrons does oxalic acid have?

Oxalic acid has a total of 22 valence electrons. Each hydrogen atom contributes 1 valence electron, each carbon atom contributes 4 valence electrons, and each oxygen atom contributes 6 valence electrons.

## 3. How many bonds can each atom in oxalic acid form?

Each hydrogen atom can form 1 bond, each carbon atom can form 4 bonds, and each oxygen atom can form 2 bonds.

## 4. What is the Lewis structure for oxalic acid?

The Lewis structure for oxalic acid consists of 2 carbon atoms bonded to each other with a double bond, each carbon atom bonded to 2 oxygen atoms with single bonds, and each oxygen atom also bonded to a hydrogen atom with a single bond.

## 5. How many lone pairs are present in the Lewis structure of oxalic acid?

There are 4 lone pairs present in the Lewis structure of oxalic acid. Each oxygen atom has 2 lone pairs, and the two carbon atoms share 2 lone pairs.