Question one: in regards to two segments underlined in blue. If (a,x) is an eigenvalue and vector of A, that means Ax = ax, where a is a real number. My question is, is Amx = amx, where m in an integer greater than 1? Question 2: in regards to two segments underlined in red. I know that I*x = x, where I is the nxn identity matrix and x is a vector in Rn. But the last part where the vector x is factored, shouldn't the 1 be an I?