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I Electricity from a Magnet

  1. Sep 30, 2018 #1
    Can you charge a capacitor with magnet and wire? Can a wire attached to a capacitor be given amperage by a stationary magnet? Can the wire be made to a short length so that the magnetic field creating the current causes the current to reach the capacitor to charge it? I imagine this doesn't work, but would be interested to know why.
     
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  3. Oct 1, 2018 #2

    OmCheeto

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    It will work, but the battery magnet has to move in relation to the wire.

    Example: Mechanically powered flashlight, Shake type design
    The linear generator consists of a sliding rare earth magnet which moves back and forth through the center of a solenoid (a coil of copper wire) when it is shaken. A current is induced in the loops of wire by Faraday's law of induction each time the magnet slides through, which charges the capacitor through a rectifier and other circuitry.
     
    Last edited: Oct 3, 2018
  4. Oct 1, 2018 #3

    CWatters

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    Magnet ha to move in relation to the wire.
     
  5. Oct 1, 2018 #4

    sophiecentaur

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    Charging a Capacitor involves a source of energy. That energy has to come, in this case, from a change in the magnetic field around the wire. There will be energy available as you first bring the magnet and wire in place but it will just be a 'one off' - same as you supply gravitational potential energy to a book when you lift it up onto a shelf; that's another one-off situation.
     
  6. Oct 1, 2018 #5

    Dale

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    Yes. This is called a generator
     
  7. Oct 1, 2018 #6

    CWatters

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    The "pulse" of electricity produced by moving a single length of wire through the magnetic field produced by a hand held magnet will be quite short duration. When the wire isn't moving through the field the wire will discharge the capacitor rapidly so you would also need a diode to prevent that.

    Thought I would run some numbers for a wire moving past a 50mm (2") diameter magnet. If the wire is moving past it (eg perpendicularly to the magnetic field) the voltage produced will be roughly = B*L*V where B is the magnetic field, L is the length of the wire in the field, V is the velocity.

    Typical value of B might be 1 Tesla. If the magnet is 50mm in diameter the length of wire in the field is approximately the same so L=0.05m. How fast can you move the wire? Lets say you wave/move it with your hand at 1 meter per second. The voltage would therefore be about..

    B*L*V = 1 * 0.05 * 1 = 0.05 Volts = 50mV

    That would only exist while the wire is moving through the field. At 1m/s it moves through the magnetic field and out the other side in 0.05/1 = 50mS. So you would generate a 5mV 50mS pulse (your mileage may vary). That's not enough to overcome the forward voltage of a diode (0.7V) and charge a capacitor but enough that you might see it twitch the needle on a meter.

    If you used 100 turns of wire you might be able to generate a higher voltage, say 100 * 0.05 = 5V pulse.

    If you want the generate 5V continuously you have to keep it moving within the magnetic field continuously. Typically by rotating the coil as per a dynamo or generator.

    PS: You might also be interested in reading up on "space tether" which involves generating electricity by moving a long wire hanging from a space craft through the earths magnetic field.
     
    Last edited: Oct 1, 2018
  8. Oct 1, 2018 #7

    ZapperZ

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    First and foremost: are you aware of Faraday's Law?

    Zz.
     
  9. Oct 2, 2018 #8

    DaveC426913

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    If he uses a translational motion (like a shake flashlight) rather than a rotational motion, it will only charge when moving in one direction, so he'll want to add a bridge rectifier in there, so it charges twice as fast.
     
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