# Electron configuration of the Ni+

• thonwer
In summary, the electron configuration of the Ni+ ion is [Ar]3d9. This may seem counterintuitive as the 4s orbital has less energy than the 3d orbital, but due to shielding effects in transition metal atoms, the 4s orbital is filled before the 3d orbital. Quantum-mechanical calculations are necessary to accurately predict these configurations in heavier atoms.
thonwer

## Homework Statement

Which is the electron configuration of the Ni+ ion?

Ni : [Ar]4s23d8

## The Attempt at a Solution

Ni+: [Ar]4s13d8

Apparently this solution is wrong and should be Ni+: [Ar]3d9 but I do not know why. As far as I know 4s has less energy than 3d so, why does one electron promote from 4s to 3d after one ionization?

This kind of thing is subtle. The only way to solve this kind of problems is by quantum-mechanical calculations, for example Cowan's old code.

In hydrogen, all orbitals with the same principle quantum number have (almost) the same energy. But when there are more electrons, the "circular" 3d orbitals are shielded much more than s-electrons, which makes that 4s is filled before 3d in transition metal atoms.

In heavier atoms, the 3d binding energies are larger than 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f.

## 1. What is the electron configuration of Ni+?

The electron configuration of Ni+ is [Ar]3d8.

## 2. How many electrons does Ni+ have?

Ni+ has 9 electrons.

## 3. Why does Ni+ have a positive charge?

Ni+ has a positive charge because it has lost one electron from its neutral state, leaving it with 9 protons and 8 electrons.

## 4. What is the significance of the [Ar] in Ni+'s electron configuration?

The [Ar] represents the electron configuration of the noble gas argon, which is the closest noble gas to nickel on the periodic table. This indicates that nickel has a full 3d subshell before losing one electron to become Ni+.

## 5. How does the electron configuration of Ni+ compare to that of Ni?

The electron configuration of Ni+ is similar to that of Ni, except that Ni+ has one less electron in its 3d subshell. This means that Ni+ has a stable configuration with a full 3d subshell, while Ni has a partially filled 3d subshell which makes it less stable.

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