Hello everybody! Many changes since the last time i was here!. Now, I've got a question that i can't stop think about. I hope you could help me. We all know the excess of charges on connected conductors always tends to distribute equally... ALWAYS? Take a look to this animation: http://www.geocities.com/k_pullo/system3.htm I will explain how it works: 1 - Initially, the two connected spheres are pre-charged with Q electrons, and the skin conductor is 2Q pre-charged. 2 - Now, we disconnect the two spheres, and connect the inner sphere to the skin. Then, all the electrons goes to the surface of the skin conductor, so the skin charges from 2Q to 3Q, and the inner sphere discharges from Q to 0. 3 - Now, we disconnect the inner sphere and the skin, and connect the skin and the outter sphere. Then, the skin will discharge from 3Q to 2Q and the outter sphere will charge from Q to 2Q. We can use this discharging proccess to obtain voltage and current to load a circuit. 4 - Then, we disconect the outter sphere and the skin conductor, and connect the outter and the inner sphere. We've got the outter sphere discharging from 2Q to Q and the inner sphere charging from 0 to Q. Also, we can use this proccess to obtain voltage and current as before to load a circuit. Now, the skin conductor is charged at 2Q, and each one of the spheres charged at Q, that's initial conditions, so we can make another cycle. We can obtain voltage and current to power a circuit always with the same charges, so we can use this "battery" forever!. Normally, the charges distribute equally when you connect two differently charged conductors... But there's one EXCEPTION: when one conductor is inside the other conductor. In this case, all the charge pass to the surface of the outter conductor, so the charges re-order without work to expend. We can use this two steps of order and disorder the charges to get current and voltage indefinitely. (voltage and current to power a circuit when connect two differently charged conductors, and re-charging of "battery" when connect the inner sphere and the skin conductor). Also take a look to www.geocities.com/k_pullo/system.htm What do you thik about this?.