1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data 2. Relevant equations addition / multiplication -- showing that the vectors (in this case) aren't closed under addition and scalar multiplication. . . 3. The attempt at a solution I really get stuck with proofs: how to begin / where to go / etc. I know that I am supposed to show that this isn't a vector space by it not being closed under addition and/or scalar multiplication -- but I don't know how to do that. The examples in the book are of polynomials -- so they take u = a2x2+ a1x + a0 and add it to v = b2x2+ b1x + b0 then separate like terms, and show that it is closed under addition. I don't know how to do something like this here. Also, I don't know if the scalar multiplication (for part a) is a typo or not). . .