From my understanding it's impossible for electrons to directly turn themselves into neutrons and protons. Electrons are an elementary particle while neutrons and protons are made from elementary particles (quarks). Questions: 1# So 'energy into matter' replicator like star trek are impossible using only electricity (electrons) right? For this to work you would need a 'reservoir' of protons, neutrons and electron? 2# Do solar panels create electrons or do they simply cause the ones that exist to move around? Seems if they create a hole/electron pair, then a massless photon created a massive particle?