*A* particle cannot have a temperature, as temperature is a property of an ensemble of particles. However, if you were to, theoretically, gather a mono-energetic bunch of particles all together, and moving in randomised directions, then the energy/temperature relationship is 1eV=~11605K, and one eV+~1.6E-19J, such that if all the particles each had 1.6E-19J then the ensemble would be at 11,605K. As soon as you put all those particles together, however, they'd rapidly thermalise (if there were no other means to keep them mono-energetic) into a distribution of energies, but their ensemble temperature would still be 11,605K nothwithstanding any expansion or thermal transfer to a container, or whatever other radiative or absorption means is going on. Let me know if that answer is helpful, or if there are any points I've not made clear.
Thank you for that. Temperature is the average kinetic energy of each particle in matter isn't it? So, say you take some amount of matter and heat it to X degrees. Then each constituent particle should have a Kinetic energy equal to..... Can you give me the equation for this?
..that fits into the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxwell–Boltzmann_distribution Well, that begins to break down when we start talking about plasmas and other extreme states of matter, but is your starting-point from which you can read up the variations to it, according to how interested you are at progressing your knowledge of statistical mechanics. I'll confess, beyond MB distribution I'll be struggling too, so that's about as much as I can tell you about more complex thermalising distributions.
Well. Then I'll switch to low temperature. Is there any equation to find out the heat, given temperature, mass, and anything other important to calculate..