I am exploring the evolution discussion from many different subjects. I have thought that maybe math could provide some impact on the discussion. I would like to explore the mathmatical probability of one aspect of evolution. It would seem that the key to man's biological evolution seems to be successful reproduction. Lets assume that 5 perfect systems are needed to provide successful reproduction. (given just the male reproductive mechanism, i don't think this is beyond reality.) For the sake of this discussion, assume you are given 4 possible conditions of each system: (1)absence,(2) incomplete,(3)complete but not functioning, and finally, (4) complete and functioning. what is the probability that operation of the reproductive mechanism will be successful ( that is all 5 systems will be complete and functioning)?