I am working on a system that requires expansion loops. I have located formulae on engineering toolbox.com and the spirax sarco website for determining the size of the loops required. So a 2m wide loop needs to be 4m tall, and I need one every 17m, roughly. What I struggling to get my head around is if I am stepping my pipe down a hill, what size and how often do I need a step to negate the requirement for expansion loops altogether. For some reason my mind can't piece this together. Does anybody have a view on the relationship? My other question is, my aforementioned references, whilst useful, are hardly rock solid. Does anybody have a suggestion for references with a more defined foundation? All ideas appreciated.