Standard cosmology says that the universe is expanding, and is expanding at an accelerated rate. If the fine structure of universe is not changing, this expansion means that units of empty space are constantly being created. We know, however, that empty space is not empty, and that the vacuum has a ground state consisting of ZPE fields. These fields include an EM field of virtual particle-antiparticle pairs that has been calculated to have over 120 OOM more energy than that required to account for the cosmological constant, so if ZPE plays a role in expansion, the mechanism is fine-tuned to over 120 decimal places. If the universe is expanding and the fine structure of the universe is not changing, the standard cosmological model must embrace the continuous creation of more and more ZPE particle pairs. The members of these pairs have opposite attributes and cancel in all respects but one: each member has mass (both gravitational and inertial - although the equivalence is assumed, and not proven). Quantum theory says that the ZPE fields arise out of fluctuations in the ground state of the vacuum, and that the energy deficit is acceptable as long as the pairs annihilate within a time bounded by the uncertainty principle. This is fine in a static reference frame, but it seems to me that when you express the ZPE in the standard model, the sum of the energy expressed in the ZPE EM field must increase with expansion, and it must increase at an accelerated pace if expansion accelerates. Does anybody here have links to papers that explicitly address this situation?