[SOLVED] irrationality How would you explain irrational human action in an empirical sense? If we say that rationality would be making decisions in the best interest of survival, then irrationality would be making decisions that adversely affect survival. Yet if in an empirical sense there is no extrinsic value to human life, how can we apply value to human action? (How can we say what is rational and irrational?) Empiricism is only concerned with sensory data and prediction and discovering true statements or theories. It just says "here is life" and takes a look at what it's doing. So how can it say "this action x is irrational"?? There HAS to be an underlying ethics or morality regarding human action - some kind of system of interpretation regarding action. That's what law is in our society - but how do you look at law from an empiricist perspective? I guess this question is related to my readings of Nietzsche. When I'm reading Nietzsche, I find many truths that come across only with intense meditation. As in there are truths which are obvious from just glancing at them, such as 2+2=4, and there are truths that require an intense psychological workout, such as "the high spirits of kindness may look like malice". Maybe that's why so many people like Nietzsche, because he gives you short sentences and makes you follow the logical progression mentally in order to have the statement make sense.