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**The given problem:**

The permitted energy values for a massless (or ultrarelativistic) particle (kinetic energy much larger than rest energy) in a 3-dimensional cubic box of volume V = L^3, can be expressed in terms of quantum numbers [itex]n_{x}[/itex], [itex]n_{y}[/itex] and [itex]n_{z}[/itex]:

[itex]\epsilon = \frac{hc\sqrt{n_x^2 + n_y^2 + n_z^2}}{2L}[/itex],

where n[itex]_{x}[/itex], n[itex]_{y}[/itex] and n[itex]_{z}[/itex] must be positive integers.

a) What are the lowest two energy levels for this system and their degeneracy?

b) Write down an expression for the canonical partition function [itex]Z_1[\itex] for 1 particle at low temperature

c) Determine the energy U and heat capacity [itex]C_V[\itex] in the limit of low T.

**Relevant equations**

b) This is the equation I've been trying to use for Z:

[itex]Z = \sum_i e^{-\frac{\epsilon_i}{kT}}[/itex]

c) The "shortcut formula" [itex]U = -\frac{\partial}{\partial \beta}\ln Z[/itex], where [itex]\beta = 1/kT[/itex],

and [itex]C_V = \left ( \frac{\partial U}{\partial T} \right )_{N,V}[/itex]

**Attempt at a solution**

a) [itex]\epsilon_1 = \frac{hc\sqrt{3}}{2L}[/itex], not degenerate ([itex]d = 1[/itex])

[itex]\epsilon_2 = \frac{hc\sqrt{6}}{2L}[/itex], thrice degenerate [itex]d = 3[/itex]

b) [itex]Z_1 = e^{-\frac{\epsilon_1}{kT}} = e^{-\frac{\sqrt{3}hc}{2LkT}}[/itex]

Could anyone tell me if is correct? b) doesn't seem correct to me, since they're asking us to sketch U(T) and Cv(T) at low T and comment on the temperature dependence later in the task, seing as neither of them depend on T...