1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data Water flows through a horizontal 180 degrees pipe bend and ejects into the atmosphere. The pipe diameter changes from 150 mm at the entrance to 50 mm exit of the bend and the bend is attached with the main pipe by 4 bolts. If the flow rate is 60 litres/s, determine the magnitude and the direction of the force on each bolt. 2. Relevant equations pressure1 x Area1 - pressure2 x Area2 + F = Mass flow rate x (velocity2 - velocity1) Volume flow rate = velocity1 x Area1 Bernoulli's equation 3. The attempt at a solution 1648.75 Newtons per bolt. Force acting at 90 degrees to the bolt.