# Fluid mechanics question help?

• zakf355
In summary: You have to show us what you've been able to do, where you're stuck, and why you're stuck. That way, we know how to help you.In summary, the problem involves determining the volume flow rate, mass flow rate, pressure at two different points, and velocity at one point in a horizontal duct with changing dimensions and elevation. Bernoulli's equation and the equation for mass flow rate are relevant to solving this problem.

#### zakf355

fluid mechanics question help!?

## Homework Statement

Air flows through a horizontal duct of dimensions 300 x 300 mm with a velocity of 15 m/s. At position (1) in the duct a water gauge (water manometer) registers a hieght of 215mm. The duct bends downwards and reduces in size to 240 x 240 mm, dropping a distance of 12 m to position (2). the specific volume of the air is 0.85 m^3 / kg and this may be taken as constant. Determine:

a) volume flow rate and mass flow rate.
b) pressure at (1) in kPa
c) The Velocity at (2)
d) pressure at (2) in kPa (guage) and mm water gauge if losses are neglected.
e) pressure at (2) in kPa (gauge and mm water gauge if losses are 10% of the total head at (1) and elevation (2) is used as datum

## Homework Equations

Bernoulli's Equation

mass flow rate = v A relative density

## The Attempt at a Solution

im struggling guys

## The Attempt at a Solution

Last edited:
I'm not surprised that you're struggling. Are you sure that the water gauge at point 1 reads 215 m? That's a pretty large water gauge, equal to the height of a 70 story building. BTW, atmospheric pressure is about 10 m W.G.

1 person
haha its mm. silly me :/

You've got to show some effort to get help from PFers. That's the rules. "I'm struggling" isn't good enough.

I would suggest breaking down this problem into smaller, more manageable parts. First, let's start by identifying the given information and what is being asked for. We are given the dimensions of a duct, the air velocity, and the height of a water gauge at two positions. We are asked to determine the volume and mass flow rates, pressure at position (1) and (2), and the velocity at position (2).

Next, we can use Bernoulli's equation to solve for the pressure at position (1) and (2). Bernoulli's equation states that the sum of the static pressure, dynamic pressure, and potential energy per unit mass is constant along a streamline. In this case, we can assume that the air is incompressible and that there are no losses. Therefore, we can simplify the equation to P1 + (1/2)ρv1^2 = P2 + (1/2)ρv2^2, where P is pressure, ρ is density, and v is velocity.

To solve for the volume and mass flow rates, we can use the equation Q = Av, where Q is volume flow rate, A is area, and v is velocity. We are given the dimensions of the duct, so we can calculate the area at position (1) and (2) and then use the given velocity to solve for the volume flow rate. The mass flow rate can be found by multiplying the volume flow rate by the air density.

Using the given specific volume and the calculated volume flow rate, we can solve for the pressure at position (1) in kPa. To find the velocity at position (2), we can use the continuity equation, which states that the volume flow rate is constant along a streamline. Therefore, we can set the volume flow rate at position (1) equal to the volume flow rate at position (2) and solve for the velocity.

To determine the pressure at position (2), we can use the same equation as before, but we need to account for the losses. We are given that the losses are 10% of the total head at position (1) and that the elevation at position (2) is used as the datum. This means that we need to subtract 10% of the total head from the pressure at position (1) to find the pressure at position (2).

I hope this helps with your understanding of this problem

## 1. What is fluid mechanics?

Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of fluids, including liquids, gases, and plasmas. It involves understanding the behavior of fluids at rest and in motion, as well as the forces and pressures that act upon them.

## 2. What are the main applications of fluid mechanics?

Fluid mechanics is used in a wide range of fields, including aerospace engineering, civil engineering, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. It is also important in the design of pumps, turbines, and other machinery that involve the flow of fluids.

## 3. How do you calculate fluid pressure?

Fluid pressure is calculated using the equation P = F/A, where P is pressure, F is force, and A is area. This means that pressure is directly proportional to force and inversely proportional to area. In fluid mechanics, pressure is often measured in units of pascals (Pa) or pounds per square inch (psi).

## 4. What is Bernoulli's principle?

Bernoulli's principle states that as the speed of a fluid increases, the pressure decreases, and vice versa. This means that as a fluid moves faster, it exerts less pressure on its surroundings. This principle is important in understanding the lift of an airplane wing and the flow of water through a pipe.

## 5. How is viscosity related to fluid mechanics?

Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. In fluid mechanics, it is an important factor in determining the speed and behavior of fluids. High viscosity fluids, such as honey, flow more slowly than low viscosity fluids, such as water. Viscosity also plays a role in the formation of boundary layers and the development of turbulence in fluid flow.