# Galling of 303 vs. 304 when coupled with 416 Stainless Steel

• DTM
In summary, while the table may provide some useful information, it is important to consider other factors and consult with an expert before making any conclusions about galling resistance between these materials.
DTM
I was looking for an appropriate galling resistance stress for a slow moving part I'm designing. You can think of it as a hinge. I found the article linked below which seemed very helpful. Table XI on page 24 shows various galling resistances, including my wear couple 303 vs. 416 Stainless Steel.
I have 2 problems with what I found though.

1. The units of the table are stated to be 10^6 psi. I'm virtually certain this is a typo as all the other tables (such as table XII) have unis of ksi or 10^3psi. And the max value for both is 50+ indicating their equipment only goes to 50ksi. So I think that problem is answered.

2. The 303 vs 416 SS galling resistance is listed as 9 ksi, while the 304 vs. 416 SS galling resistance is listed as 24 ksi. This is completely counter intuitive, as dozens of sources list 303 as having superior galling resistance to 304 due to the sulfur in the 303. Anyone know if there's something special about 416 that would make it perform better on 304? Or could this be a mistake too?
Thank you.

https://www.nickelinstitute.org/~/Media/Files/TechnicalLiterature/ReviewofWearandGallingCharacteristicsofStainlessSteel_9006_.pdf

It is possible that this could be a mistake, but it is also possible that there are other factors at play that could affect the galling resistance of 303 and 304 against 416. For instance, if the surface finish of the materials in the test was different, or if the material properties were different in some way, this could explain the difference in results. It is also possible that the test conditions, such as temperature, lubricant, loading speed, etc., could have an effect on the results. It would be best to consult with an expert in the field to determine if any of these factors could be influencing the results.

## What is galling of 303 vs. 304 when coupled with 416 Stainless Steel?

Galling is a form of wear that occurs when two metal surfaces rub against each other under pressure, causing material to transfer from one surface to the other. This can lead to increased friction, damage to the surfaces, and ultimately failure of the components.

## Why is galling more of a concern with 303 and 304 stainless steel when coupled with 416 stainless steel?

303 and 304 stainless steel have a higher sulfur content, which makes them more prone to galling when coupled with 416 stainless steel. This is because sulfur can combine with iron at high temperatures to form iron sulfide, which has a low melting point and can act as a lubricant, causing the surfaces to stick and wear against each other.

## What are some factors that can contribute to galling of 303 vs. 304 when coupled with 416 Stainless Steel?

Some factors that can contribute to galling include high surface pressure, low surface speed, lack of lubrication, and the presence of contaminants or surface imperfections. The type of application and the materials used in the components can also play a role in galling.

## How can galling of 303 vs. 304 when coupled with 416 Stainless Steel be prevented?

To prevent galling, it is important to use proper lubrication, control surface pressure and speed, and ensure that the surfaces are free of contaminants and imperfections. Choosing the right materials for the application and using coatings or surface treatments can also help prevent galling.

## What are some alternatives to using 303 and 304 stainless steel when coupled with 416 stainless steel to avoid galling?

Some alternatives to using 303 and 304 stainless steel include using different grades of stainless steel with lower sulfur content, such as 316 or 310, or using non-stainless steel materials such as alloys or ceramics. It is important to choose materials that are compatible with each other and suitable for the specific application to avoid galling.