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For example, suppose I have a rod of length 2L, with an edge on the point -L on the X axis and another on L.

The rod is uniformly charged, with total charge Q>0.

having that said, if i wanted to calculate the electric field in an arbitrary (0,y,0) point, couldnt I use Gauss's law, using a cilinder as my gauss surface?

And if the field is not specifically radial, in order to calculate it for a (x,0,0) point, i would have to integrate using coulomb's law, considering it a continuous distribution, correct?

So, the problem lies within the first problem:

It gives me two different results wether i use the method described(Gauss's law), or if I use coulomb's law for continuous distributions of charge, and integrate from -L to L.

which of the methods is wrong, and why?