What is the relation between gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and supernova?
As two of the most powerful phenomena in the universe it is tempting to link them. You might find this paper of interest:(review to appear in Prog.Theor.Phys. S.136 (1999)) Origin of Gamma Ray Bursters:
Or a more recent paper (Proceedings of the conference "SWIFT and GRBs: Unveiling the Relativistic Universe", Venice, June 5-9, 2006, and in "Il Nuovo Cimento"): Diversity of the Supernova - Gamma-Ray Burst Connection:
Yes , but I don't understood why GRB is short event (small than 200 s) and supernova is long event. Are GRBs produced in the same time as its associeted supernova in all case?
and what about their afterglows in the other electomgnetic bands?
A short GRB is under 2 seconds. A 200 second GRB would be a long GRB. No one really understands how that much energy can be released in that short a period of time.
Afterglows, however, can last for months. They are caused by a different physical mechanism than the initial burst. We typically observe afterglows in frequencies from X-ray to radio.
Not all GRBs are associated with supernova. We observe far more supernovae than we do GRBs, and many long GRBs are not associated with supernovae. There is a connection there, but it's not clear-cut and not at all well understood yet.
If I was at work, I'd give you a list of references you might want to read, but I'm currently traveling for the holidays. You may want to search for some recent publications or review papers on the subject to learn more.
This time is observed time or intrinsicaly time. And how much energy is released by second in the source frame.?
A Supernovae is either a core collapse (massive) star, or an exploding White dwarf (Type Ia). GRB is belived to be due to other mechanisms, like binary neutronstars merging, matter accreating on NS / BH.
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