1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data if i have a plane, i want to find a way to cover it completely with circles of radius r. so ofcourse the circles will overlap to have no gaps on the plane. say for example the plane is a big rectangle. how do i find a formula to find the minimum number of circles. 2. Relevant equations 3. The attempt at a solution i first inscribed a square in a circle an found thw wastage of circle material to be pi/2-1. and i know that overall, the area of the circle times the number of circles must be greater than the area of the plane but i'm stuck on how to find a formula.