How accurate are the muon velocity measurements in storage rings, for muons generated in hadron colliders like CERN.(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); How is the velocity measured?

For example, Bailey et. al. confirmed SR mathematical predictions in their famous muon ring experiment (1977), which lists the velocity of muons as 0.9994c and corresponding γ as 29.3 with a very high level of accuracy/confidence.

Did they measure the velocity of muons though some "time of flight" mechanism independent of the γ value, or was it derived using the "relativistic velocity equation" from the measured γ (or the known muon energy level for that matter)?

The reason I ask about the accuracy is that the velocity in fact has to be an even more accurate 0.99942c (using SR time dilation equation 1/√(1-v^{2}/c^{2})) to arrive at the measured γ of 29.3.Even 0.9994c or 0.9995c produces a hugely different γat that level of velocity (28.87 and 31.62 respectively!).

Appreciate any answers from anyone who is knowledgeable in this area.

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# How are muon velocities measured so accurately in storage rings/hadron colliders?

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