# How can we calculate the doppler effect?

• Raparicio
In summary: I'll do what I can to help. In summary, the doppler effect is the phenomenon by which a sound waves moves away from the source at the speed of sound. When a object moves at a velocity a little less than Mach 1, waves are generated that can be heard by an observer as high frequency sound. Supersonic aircraft are designed to deal with this transition from subsonic to supersonic speeds.
Raparicio
Hello,

There's a problem with the doppler efect that I don't understand.

When a object runs at a velocity a little minor than velocity of sound, appears in front of the emisor a group of high frecuence, that in simulators (applets) is increasing in time. This wave, is like a physical object, that acts like a wall?

In the exactly case that the object goes at mach 1, how can we calculate the doppler efect? in theory, there's a wave of infinite frecuency and power (?)

Doppler's effect is not applicable to ultrasonic sounds. Thats for your second one.Please clarify the first question...a bit corrugated..

Dear Dr. Brain,

Thanks for the first.

The second question is, how can we calculate the waves that are generated at the exactly velocity velocity of sound. In this, we see that waves are acumulated in front of the moving object, but in the clasical formulas it's a mathematical singularity.

best reggards.

Raparicio said:
Hello,

There's a problem with the doppler efect that I don't understand.

When a object runs at a velocity a little minor than velocity of sound, appears in front of the emisor a group of high frecuence, that in simulators (applets) is increasing in time. This wave, is like a physical object, that acts like a wall?

In the exactly case that the object goes at mach 1, how can we calculate the doppler efect? in theory, there's a wave of infinite frecuency and power (?)

At speeds a little less than Mach 1 the doppler effect does produce very short wavelength sound waves that propegate away from the source at the speed of sound. These would be heard by a stationary observer (relative to the air) as high frequency sound. This is just a normal doppler effect. To the object moving through the air, as Mach 1 is approached there is a very real and highly energetic disturbance in the atmosphere that does serve as a "barrier" that must be penetrated to achieve higher speeds. The first airplanes to achieve these speeds experienced a great deal of turbulence and drag associated with this barrier. Supersonic aircraft are designed to deal with this transition from subsonic to supersonic speeds. Swept wings are commonly used to keep the component of velocity perpendicual to the leading edge of the airfoil below the speed of sound, which considerably reduces the drag. At speeds above Mach 1, the shock wave tends to be formed toward the back edge of the wing, so the plane in a sense "breaks the sound barrier" and achieves stable flight conditions. There is an excellent photo of a jet at Mach 1 where the shock wave produces a vapor cloud at the following link. I have seen a video clip of this somewhere online, but I don't have the source for it handy

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap010221.html

When the source is moving at the speed of sound or greater, there is a shock wave produced that is modeled by the applets you refer to. The shock wave is not a simple sinusoidally varying waveform. It is a highly energetic wavefront of a large change in air pressure that is heard as a "sonic boom". It's frequency spectrum is much more complex than the frequency of the source, and cannot be determined from simple doppler considertions. When it arrives, it shakes buildings and rattles windows. After the initial shock passes, the ususal sound waves arrive with frequncy components determined by the doppler effect. Of course when those waves arrive at an observer, the object that produced the sound has long since moved away from where that sound was produced. Even at subsonic speeds you can often see a jet in the sky and hear the sound coming from a point far behind it.

Try this

http://faculty.rmwc.edu/tmichalik/movies/F-18.MPEG

If that doesn't work try going to this site to download it

http://faculty.rmwc.edu/tmichalik/physmov.htm

Last edited by a moderator:
Very Interesting Information

Dear OlderDan,

Thanks for your dedication to this question. This information is very interesting and just what I'm looking for.

You say: "as Mach 1 is approached there is a very real and highly energetic disturbance in the atmosphere that does serve as a "barrier" that must be penetrated to achieve higher speeds."

Id like to calculate it numerically.

Thanks for all.
R. Aparicio.

Raparicio said:
Dear OlderDan,

Thanks for your dedication to this question. This information is very interesting and just what I'm looking for.

You say: "as Mach 1 is approached there is a very real and highly energetic disturbance in the atmosphere that does serve as a "barrier" that must be penetrated to achieve higher speeds."

Id like to calculate it numerically.

Thanks for all.
R. Aparicio.

You have your work cut out for you I'm certianly not an expert in this area. Here is a brief paper that might be of some help. I'll look a bit more and see if I can find anything else.

http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/pubs/00326956.pdf

Thanks

Really, your information has been very useful to me.

I've found that the equation of Rankine-hugoniot is that works with it.

Thanks to all.

R. Aparicio.

## 1. What is the Doppler Effect?

The Doppler Effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave.

## 2. How can we calculate the Doppler Effect for sound waves?

The formula for calculating the Doppler Effect for sound waves is: f' = f((v +/- vo)/(v +/- vs)), where f' is the observed frequency, f is the emitted frequency, v is the speed of sound, vo is the observer's velocity, and vs is the source's velocity.

## 3. What is the difference between the Doppler effect for sound waves and light waves?

The Doppler effect for sound waves is affected by the relative velocities of the observer and source, while the Doppler effect for light waves is affected by the relative velocities of the observer and the source as well as the medium through which the light is traveling.

## 4. How is the Doppler Effect used in real-life applications?

The Doppler Effect is used in various fields such as astronomy, meteorology, and radar technology. It is used to measure the speed and distance of stars and galaxies, predict weather patterns, and detect moving objects such as airplanes and cars.

## 5. Can the Doppler Effect be observed in everyday life?

Yes, the Doppler Effect can be observed in everyday life. For example, the change in pitch of a siren as an ambulance or police car passes by is due to the Doppler Effect. The change in frequency of a passing train's horn can also be attributed to the Doppler Effect.

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