How Do You Rank the Electronegativity of Ions and Neutral Atoms Together?

In summary, ranking the electronegativity of ions involves considering the effective nuclear charge and size of the ion. The correct ranking, from least to greatest, is Li < P < H < C < Ti4+ < F < Li+ < Mg2+.
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Homework Statement



"Rank the following in the order of increasing absolute electronegativity: F, Li, Ti4+, P, H, C, Mg2+, Li+."


Homework Equations





The Attempt at a Solution



- I can rank neutral species no problem. Periodic table has that covered, and Pauling values are easy to find. Ions don't have this.

- I know these ions have an electron configuration of the noble gases: [He], [Ne], and [Ar] which are not electronegative, but due to the increases effective nuclear charge on the valence shell of these ions, I'm not sure if the same trend applies.

- I've looked into ionization energies, atomic radii, electron affinities, etc., but I'm really stumped. I can rank the ions on their own, and the neutral atoms on their own, but I'm not sure how to integrate them.

- As for the ions, I believe that it makes sense for Li+ to have the greatest EN of the three ions due to it being the harder specie. Harder species tend to have an increases EN, while softer ones have lower EN.

- My Inorganic textbook mentioned the following: "Li has a low electronegativity, the Li+ ion has a relatively high EN resulting from the extremely high second ionization potential." I looked up, and compared all the ionization energies pertaining to the valence electrons of each species, and the ranking came up as follows:

Li < P < H < C < Ti4+ < F < Mg2+ < Li+

I'm not sure how I feel about Mg2+ and Li+ being above F in electronegativity though, so I feel like I may be missing a factor. Please help!
 
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Thank you for your post. Ranking the electronegativity of ions can be tricky, but you are on the right track with your approach. You are correct in considering the effective nuclear charge on the valence shell of the ions. This is an important factor in determining electronegativity.

In addition, it is important to consider the size of the ion. Smaller ions tend to have higher electronegativity because the valence electrons are closer to the nucleus and experience a stronger pull from the positive charge.

Based on this information, the ranking you have come up with is mostly correct. However, I would suggest swapping the positions of Mg2+ and Li+. While Mg2+ does have a higher effective nuclear charge, it is also larger than Li+, which lowers its electronegativity. Li+, on the other hand, is smaller and therefore has a higher electronegativity.

The correct ranking, from least to greatest electronegativity, is as follows:

Li < P < H < C < Ti4+ < F < Li+ < Mg2+

I hope this helps clarify any confusion. Keep up the good work in your studies!
 

Related to How Do You Rank the Electronegativity of Ions and Neutral Atoms Together?

What is electronegativity?

Electronegativity is a measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons towards itself in a chemical bond. It is a fundamental property of elements that helps predict the nature of chemical reactions.

How is electronegativity measured?

Electronegativity is measured on a scale that was first developed by Linus Pauling. The scale ranges from 0.7 to 4.0, with 0.7 being the least electronegative and 4.0 being the most electronegative element.

How does electronegativity affect the formation of ions?

When atoms of different electronegativities come together to form a compound, the more electronegative atom will attract electrons more strongly, resulting in the formation of ions. The atom with higher electronegativity will become a negatively charged ion (anion), while the atom with lower electronegativity will become a positively charged ion (cation).

What is the relationship between ionization energy and electronegativity?

Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom. It is directly related to electronegativity, as atoms with high electronegativity have a greater attraction for electrons and thus have a higher ionization energy.

How does the electronegativity of ions affect their chemical properties?

The difference in electronegativity between two ions in a compound determines the type of chemical bond that forms between them. For example, if the difference is small, a covalent bond will form, while a larger difference will result in an ionic bond. This affects the physical and chemical properties of the compound, such as melting and boiling points, solubility, and reactivity.

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