Perhaps we have a few members who can shed some light on this. It has always amazed me that humans [if not dogs and other animals] can do what they do. For example, consider a baseball out-fielder catching a high fly ball. I would assume that we are drawing mental lines of flight that we constantly adjust based on the latest visual cues from the ball. But even if so, I know that a pro ball player must begin to position himself for not only the line of flight, but also for the trajectory of the ball at the moment that it leaves the bat. So do we coordinate the sound and angle to do this this - we estimate how far it will travel by the sound, and the line of flight by the angle that the ball leaves the bat? And what of more difficult tasks? While talking about my days as a hellion on wheels, I was thinking about how we judge speed and can anticipate how fast we might try to negotiate a turn. Even if we have never seen the turn, and even if we don't know our actual speed, with practice we can somehow estimate this all in a second or less, and make the correct decision in a moment while coming into a turn, then constantly adjusting for the motion according to a variety of subtle clues - the sound of the engine, the forces acting against he steering wheel, the accelerations felt, the relative angle of the car wrt the surroundings and how much that angle changes over time, the properties of the road being slick, sticky, hard or soft, wet or dry, sludge or rock, etc -that we somehow interpret with amazing speed and then make life or death decisions with relative ease. How much do we understand about how the brain manages these sorts of tasks, and how do we do it?