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How were quarks or hydrogen made in the early universe?

  1. Mar 1, 2008 #1

    jal

    User Avatar

    How were quarks or hydrogen made in the early universe?
    To try to find out I did a search of Baryogenesis.
    The short answer ….. nobody knows.
    With pressure, it seems that the “phase change” can happen at lower temperatures then what is presently “modeled”. the "phase change” can continue while the pressure is decreasing. (AFFLECK-DINE BARYOGENESIS might be on to something??)
    I have put my quest for answers in my blog.
    I have a question at the end of this post.
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    http://aps.arxiv.org/find/all/1/all:+Baryogenesis/0/1/0/all/0/1?skip=0&query_id=6c7660c59b1f2d27
    Showing results 1 through 25 (of 902 total) for all:Baryogenesis
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    https://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=53648
    The 42 faces of baryogenesis
    there are actually 42 different mechanisms proposed for baryogenesis. the list is very interesting, so I reproduce it here
    1. GUT baryogenesis
    2. GUT baryogenesis after preheating
    3. Baryogenesis from primordial black holes
    4. String scale baryogenesis
    5. Affleck-Dine (AD) baryogenesis
    6. Hybridized AD baryogenesis
    7. No-scale AD baryogenesis
    8. Single field baryogenesis
    9. Electroweak (EW) baryogenesis
    10. Local EW baryogenesis
    11. Non-local EW baryogenesis
    12. EW baryogenesis at preheating
    13. SUSY EW baryogenesis
    14. String mediated EW baryogenesis
    15. Baryogenesis via leptogenesis
    16. Inflationary baryogenesis
    17. Resonant baryogenesis
    18. Spontaneous baryogenesis
    19. Coherent baryogenesis
    20. Gravitational baryogenesis
    21. Defect mediated baryogenesis
    22. Baryogenesis from long cosmic strings
    23. Baryogenesis from short cosmic strings
    24. Baryogenesis from collapsing loops
    25. Baryogenesis through collapse of vortons
    26. Baryogenesis through axion domain walls
    27. Baryogenesis through QCD domain walls
    28. Baryogenesis through unstable domain walls
    29. Baryogenesis from classical force
    30. Baryogenesis from electrogenesis
    31. B-ball baryogenesis
    32. Baryogenesis from CPT breaking
    33. Baryogenesis through quantum gravity
    34. Baryogenesis via neutrino oscillations
    35. Monopole baryogenesis
    36. Axino induced baryogenesis
    37. Gravitino induced baryogenesis
    38. Radion induced baryogenesis
    39. Baryogenesis in large extra dimensions
    40. Baryogenesis by brane collision
    41. Baryogenesis via density fluctuations
    42. Baryogenesis from hadronic jets
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    http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0609145
    Baryogenesis
    Pedagogical lectures on baryogenesis, with emphasis on the electroweak phase transition and electroweak baryogenesis.
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    http://aps.arxiv.org/abs/0710.5857
    Baryogenesis -- 40 Years Later
    Authors: Wilfried Buchmüller
    (Submitted on 31 Oct 2007 (v1), last revised 1 Nov 2007 (this version, v2))
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    Affleck-Dine baryogenesis
    http://search.arxiv.org:8081/?query...12041733786062cr213.423nN-1719605108&byDate=1
    Displaying hits 1 to 10 of 432.
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    http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0703275
    Preheating and Affleck-Dine leptogenesis after thermal inflation
    Authors: Gary N. Felder, Hyunbyuk Kim, Wan-Il Park, Ewan D. Stewart
    (Submitted on 26 Mar 2007)
    In addition to demonstrating a crucial aspect of our model, it also opens the more general possibility of low energy Affleck-Dine baryogenesis.
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    http://arxiv.org/find/all/1/all:+Leptogenesis/0/1/0/all/0/1
    Showing results 1 through 25 (of 614 total) for all:Leptogenesis
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    http://arxiv.org/abs/0802.2962
    Leptogenesis
    Authors: Sacha Davidson, Enrico Nardi, Yosef Nir
    (Submitted on 20 Feb 2008)
    Leptogenesis is a class of scenarios where the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is produced from a lepton asymmetry generated in the decays of a heavy sterile neutrino. We explain the motivation for leptogenesis. We review the basic mechanism, and describe subclasses of models. We then focus on recent developments in the understanding of leptogenesis: finite temperature effects, spectator processes, and in particular the significance of flavor physics.
    --------------
    http://arxiv.org/abs/0801.3972
    Effects of reheating on leptogenesis
    Authors: F. Hahn-Woernle, M. Plumacher
    (Submitted on 25 Jan 2008)
    We study the evolution of a cosmological baryon asymmetry in leptogenesis when the right-handed neutrinos are produced in inflaton decays. By performing a detailed numerical study over a broad range of inflaton-neutrino couplings we show that the resulting asymmetry can be larger by two orders of magnitude or more than in thermal leptogenesis, if the reheating temperature T_{RH} is of the same order as the right-handed neutrino mass M_1. Hence, the lower limit on the baryogenesis temperature obtained in thermal leptogenesis can be relaxed accordingly.
    As we shall see, the lower bound on the reheating temperature can be relaxed by as much as three
    orders of magnitude in the most interesting parameter range of strong washout.

    In particular, we investigated the interplay between inflation and leptogenesis by considering a decay chain where the inflaton first exclusively decays into heavy right-handed neutrinos which then decay into standard model lepton and Higgs doublets, thereby reheating the universe and creating the baryon asymmetry of the universe.
    ==========
    Question:
    From what I understand, there is a scalar phase where everything is moving at the speed of light, which is followed by an expansion phase that makes the quarks.
    Irregardless of the names given, (inflaton, neutrinos, etc.), the models assume that there are scalars that are still present and that these are responsible for the thermal bath.
    This would be before the production of protons, the pp chain reaction, which happens only under constant pressure and temperature (ie. The stars).
    The suggestion is that there is an interaction between two theoretical particles, (inflaton, right hand neutrinos) which produces the particles that we know.
    Can the radiation, which produced the CMB, be produced at this early phase?

     
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