1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data I'm seeking to understand how a penstock's width and thickness is related to the the ending power produced by the turbine. . . . In short, how can I determine the most ideal penstock? What is the perfect penstock in regards to a system with a very high head (vertical distance)? If water is being collected at a high altitude and goes through a penstock to sea-level, what kind of penstock would be most ideal in order to produce the most benefit? 2. Relevant equations N/A 3. The attempt at a solution I have done a lot of research, but I can't find a concise explanation. I'm sorry this is so long and confusing! Thank you in advance.