• Support PF! Buy your school textbooks, materials and every day products Here!

Hydrogen bonding

  • Thread starter Hevonen
  • Start date
54
0
[SOLVED] Hydrogen bonding

Which types of bonding are present in CH3CHO(=ethanal) in the liquid state?

I. Single covalent bonding
II. Double covalent bonding
III. Hydrogen bonding

A. I and II only
B. I and III only
C. II and III only
D. I, II and III


The solution is A but I can not understand why it is not D. Namely, why would there be no hydrogen bonding in ethanal? I think there is no intramolecular hydrogen bonding but there should be intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Can someone explain why A is correct and not D, please.
 
Last edited:

Answers and Replies

GCT
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
1,727
0
This is a trick question - the hydrogen is not attached to the Oxygen it's attached to the Carbon - hydrogen bonds technically require significant dipole moments that are generated by two adjacent heteroatoms with large electronegativity differences.
 
54
0
This is a trick question - the hydrogen is not attached to the Oxygen it's attached to the Carbon - hydrogen bonds technically require significant dipole moments that are generated by two adjacent heteroatoms with large electronegativity differences.
I accept your point that this is a trick question. Namely, the question asks bonding "in CH3CHO(=ethanal)" i.e. in one molecule. In that sense, A is the right answer.

However, if you suppose that the question ask bonding in a sample of ethanal, then I think the right answer would be D. Firstly, dipole-dipole forces can form between ethanal and water because of the electronegativity difference between O and H in ethanal. Although ethanal-ethanal-bond is probably weak due to your argument of "adjacent heteroatoms", there is still water to which ethanal can form a hydrogen-bond. Secondly, even molecules such as ketones and carboxylic acids can form hydrogen bond to water so why not ethanal? Hence, I argue that the right answer is D if one reason the question to concern molecules of ethanal in water.
 
Last edited:
GCT
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
1,727
0
The question is in regards to a pure liquid sample of ethanal if it were an aqueous solution it would have mentioned it either as aqueous or as a solution -it seems that this question can be technical also - I would be quite bitter with my professor having asked this question nevertheless it makes sure that you have a good understanding of just what hydrogen bonding is.
 
Last edited:
54
0
Why would ethanal not bond to other ethanal in hydrogen bond if carboxylic acid can bond between themselves? Is the reason similar as with ketones that there is not sufficient dipole-dipole moment.
 
Last edited:
GCT
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
1,727
0
You should read up on the definition of hydrogen bonding. In Carboxylic Acids there is both an Carbonyl Oxygen as well as an alcohol Oxygen which has its Hydrogen bonded directly to the Oxygen-this is not the case with pure Ketones as well as pure Aldehydes. Usually there is intermolecular Hydrogen bonding between species which have Hydrogen bonded directly to an Oxygen or Nitrogen-not quite sure about Fluorines though.
 
54
0
Thanks!
 
GCT
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
1,727
0
Sure glad to help.
 
33
0
woa! thats amazing question really..definitely i would be tricked in a question like this, but what about the dipole-dipole interaction between the two carbonyle groups? not considering hydrogen here..just the normalelectric interaction between the two carbonyls.
 
Last edited:
GCT
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
1,727
0
There should be some dipole attractions between the two carbonyl groups the carbon of this group has a partial positive charge and the oxygen has a partial negative charge so there's a dipole moment from the carbon to the oxygen.
 
1
0
Re: [SOLVED] Hydrogen bonding

Your are not wrong regarding the hydrogen bonding in ethanol
Ethanol have C-H group acting as a probable hydrogen bond donor and carbonyl O acting as hydrogen bond acceptor. Certainly due to low polarity of C-H bond. A hydrogen bond involving C-H..O intermolecular interaction will be certainly weak. But such type of hydrogen bond are well known and falls under the category of weak non conventional hydrogen bonds(with hydrogen bond energy of around 3-5kcal/mol). Also presence of C=O group next to the CH3 group activates the C-H bond for such interaction by inductive effect. And such an interaction is observed in the high resolution neutron powder x-ray crystallography of ethanal.

Reference
Journal of Molecular Structure 520 (2000) 265–272
R.M. Ibbersona,*, O. Yamamurob, T. Matsuob
 

Related Threads for: Hydrogen bonding

  • Last Post
Replies
1
Views
1K
  • Last Post
Replies
4
Views
2K
  • Last Post
Replies
1
Views
1K
  • Last Post
Replies
7
Views
10K
  • Last Post
Replies
4
Views
14K
Replies
1
Views
1K
  • Last Post
Replies
5
Views
36K
Replies
2
Views
674
Top