I have been using this paper to study the properties of the Godel metric: http://www.math.nyu.edu/~momin/stuff/grpaper.pdf I have some questions that start from Theorem 3.1 and go from there. 1. On page 5, it says that Gμν = Rμν - ½ gμνR = 8πGρuμuν + gμνΛ (note: Λ is supposed to be the cosmological constant, also uμ is a covariant 4- velocity vector component and the expression ρuμuν equals the stress energy momentum tensor Tμν ) (There must have been a typo in one part of the paper where it has ρuμuν instead of ρuμuν. Please correct me if you think they actually meant to use superscripts the first time for whatever reason instead of subscripts.) This basically boils down to writing the Einstein field equations as: Rμν - ½ gμνR = 8πGTμν + gμνΛ instead of the usual Rμν - ½ gμνR + gμνΛ = 8πGTμν Is there some kind of special circumstance where you are supposed to put the cosmological constant on the right hand side of the equations and a special circumstance for the left hand side? For example, is there some rule such as: If the cosmological constant is negative then you put it on the right, but if the constant is positive then you put it on the left? If there is not some kind of rule like that, then why and how did the writer of the paper know to put it on the right instead of the left? 2. The paper says that Tμν= ρuμuν . Now, according to my calculations, if you do some algebraic manipulation of this version of the EFEs: Rμν - ½ gμνR = 8πGTμν + gμνΛ then you can derive the stress energy momentum tensor as follows: T00 = 1/(8πG) T02 and T20 = ex1/(8πG) T22 = e2x1/(8πG) All other elements are 0. Note: This uses the c= 1 convention, Λ = -1/(2a2) , ρ = 1/(8πGa2) Now if you set ρuμuν equal to Tμν then you should be able to derive the covariant 4-velocity vector components: u0 = a u2 = aex1 The other two components are 0. Here is an example of how I calculated these components: T00= ρu0u0 = 1/(8πGa2) * u0 * u0 = 1/(8πG) For this equation to hold true, then u0 * u0 must equal a2, so then u0 = a That is how I calculated my covariant 4-velocity vector. Now I successfully derived the covariant 4-velocity vector. However, the conclusion of this section of the paper said that the particles in the Godel space time actually have velocities that correspond to the contravariant version of this 4 velocity vector: uμ = <1/a , 0 ,0 ,0> Now it is a simple step to simply raise an index for a vector, so I understand how this was derived. However, why did the velocity vector get changed from the covariant to the contravariant version in the first place? In other words, why do the particles in a Godel space-time have velocity vector uμ instead of uμ? After all, it is uμ (and not uμ) that plays a part in calculating Tμν. Would it be wrong to say that particles in a Godel space-time travel with velocity vector uμ? 3. Finally, what exactly is a? How do I determine its value?