How many pounds of pressure are exerted by a gallon of freezing water?
Originally posted by Bystander
How much would you like it to be? Pressure along the liquid-solid coexistence line is independent of volume; it depends only upon the temperature at which you establish the liquid-solid equilibrium. The liquid-solid coexistence begins at the triple point of water, 273.16 K and x Pa, proceeds to lower temperatures and higher pressures, 273.15 K and 0.1 MPa (ordinary freezing pt.), and goes wandering off through a fascinating phase diagram. At near normal conditions, you can figure something like 10 MPa/K for water in confined vessels --- once you cool to a point at which the pressure equals the burst or deformation limit for the vessel, the water freezes and the vessel bursts or deforms to accommodate the larger volume of the solid.