1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data Prove that if (A^τ)A = A, then A is idempotent. [Hint: First show that (A^τ)A = A^τ] 2. Relevant equations N/A 3. The attempt at a solution I've gotten to the hint portion by taking the transpose of both sides, but have been unable to get that far past that. I've tried right side multiplying by A^-1 and have gotten this far: A^τ = A^τ(A^-1), then, taking the transpose of each side yields A = [(A^-1)^τ]A I can't figure out how to get rid of the transpose/inverse from there. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks!