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I was reading Charles Steinmetz "Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomenon" and on page 89 (can be found online easily) Steinmetz defines impedance as: Z = R - jX, but see it commonly defined as R + jX. I read on wikipedia there are two impedance equations for capacitive impedance and inductive (R - jX, R + jX), but Steinmetz doesn't mention either or suggest this is a special case of impedance, just that it applies for alternating waves.

So, did Steinmetz make a mistake in his definition? How do we know which impedance he is talking about?

I am confused because I doubt Steinmetz defined it incorrectly, yet don't know where the sign difference comes from? I get the wikipedia explaination of phase difference, but Steinmetz says its the impedance, I don't think he meant just capacitive or inductive.

EDIT: Looking further into the book, he only uses Z = R - jX throughout the whole book, seems to be the general definition, regardless of inductive or capacitive

Thoughts? Thanks.

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# Impedance defined?

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