In the time before Copernicus introduced the idea that the planets including the Earth orbit the Sun, how were the daily and annual cycles reconciled? I have always assumed that in the Copernican view the Earth orbits the Sun once each year. But not till today did I wonder about the 24-hour daily cycle: In pre-Copernican time, the Earth must have been seen as rotating once each day. That is, the Earth might have been seen as the center of the universe, but it must have been seen as rotating every day even if it was considered otherwise stationary in space. If the Sun was regarded as circling the Earth ONCE EACH DAY, then how were the annual cycles explained? Just wondering if anyone has any insight into this.