Insulin dependent glucose uptake

In summary, insulin resistance is a key feature of type 2 diabetes, but it is not the only cause. Other factors, such as genetic predisposition and lifestyle, also contribute to the development of this disease. While insulin plays a significant role in glucose clearance, other transporters and pathways are also involved. It is difficult to determine the exact percentage of glucose clearance dependent on insulin, but it is a crucial player in regulating glucose levels in the body. Therefore, addressing insulin resistance is essential in managing type 2 diabetes.
  • #1
mktsgm
148
22
We know that type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin insufficiency/resistance.

Normally Insulin causes GLUT4 in the liver and muscle/adipose cells to surface at their cell membrane, to facilitate the transport of glucose from the circulating blood. Type2DM lacks this action and hence glucose don't get into cells and thus keep circulating in the blood.

But there are other glucose transporters like GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT3 etc which are not dependent on insulin to cause the suffusing of glucose into the cells. Ie., they facilitate transporting glucose (although in lesser quantity) into these cells even in the absence of insulin. Isn't it?

Is it right to assume that to consume the ingested glucose, insulin is not everything but may be important.

My question is, how much of our body's glucose clearance is dependent on insulin only, in ratio? (Or not dependent on insulin, if we look at it in another way) For example, is 70% of our glucose clearance is dependent on insulin/GLUT4 axis? Or is it 90%, or is it 20% only?

This question is to understand, why do we focus only on insulin in diabetes type2DM, when we have other pathways to consume glucose in our cells?

Thanks.
 
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  • #2


I appreciate your curiosity and interest in understanding the mechanisms of type 2 diabetes. To answer your question, I would like to clarify a few points first.

Insulin resistance is a key feature of type 2 diabetes, but it is not the only cause. In fact, there are multiple factors that contribute to the development of this disease, including genetic predisposition, lifestyle factors, and other physiological processes. Additionally, insulin resistance does not necessarily mean that there is a complete lack of insulin in the body. In most cases, individuals with type 2 diabetes produce insulin, but their cells do not respond to it effectively.

Now, to address your main question, it is important to understand that glucose transport is a complex process that involves multiple transporters and signaling pathways. While insulin plays a crucial role in facilitating glucose uptake in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue through the GLUT4 transporter, it is not the only pathway involved in glucose clearance. As you mentioned, there are other transporters, such as GLUT1 and GLUT2, that can also transport glucose into cells, albeit with different levels of efficiency.

It is difficult to determine the exact percentage of glucose clearance that is dependent on insulin, as it can vary depending on individual factors. However, it is safe to say that insulin plays a significant role in glucose clearance, particularly in the liver and muscle tissue. In fact, research has shown that insulin resistance in these tissues is a key contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes.

So, to answer your final question, the reason why we focus on insulin in type 2 diabetes is because it is a major player in regulating glucose levels in the body. While other pathways may also contribute to glucose clearance, addressing insulin resistance is crucial in managing this disease. I hope this helps to clarify your doubts. Keep asking questions and learning more about this fascinating field of research!
 

Related to Insulin dependent glucose uptake

1. What is insulin dependent glucose uptake?

Insulin dependent glucose uptake is a process in which insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, helps to regulate the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood by promoting the uptake of glucose into cells.

2. How does insulin facilitate glucose uptake?

Insulin binds to specific receptors on the surface of cells, allowing glucose transporters to move to the cell membrane and transport glucose into the cell. This process is necessary for cells to use glucose as energy.

3. What happens when there is a deficiency of insulin?

In individuals with type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, resulting in a deficiency. This leads to impaired glucose uptake and high blood sugar levels, which can have serious health consequences if left untreated.

4. Is insulin dependent glucose uptake affected by exercise?

Yes, exercise can increase insulin sensitivity and improve glucose uptake, particularly in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Regular physical activity can also reduce the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

5. Are there any factors that can affect insulin dependent glucose uptake?

Yes, the amount of body fat, diet, and genetics can all play a role in insulin dependent glucose uptake. Excessive body fat and a diet high in sugar and unhealthy fats can lead to insulin resistance, making it harder for insulin to facilitate glucose uptake. Genetics can also influence an individual's risk for developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

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