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Integral of sech^3 (x)

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  • #1
DryRun
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Homework Statement
Integral of sech^3 (x)


The attempt at a solution

sech^3 (x) = (sech x)(sech^2 (x)) = (sech x)(1-tanh^2 (x))
And then i expanded by multiplying:

(sech x)(1-tanh^2 (x)) = (sech x) - (sech x)(tanh^2 (x))
The integral of sech x can be found.
But what about the integral of (sech x)(tanh^2 (x))?
I've tried various substitutions, but failed. Let t = tanh x and also let t = sech x.
I also tried this way:
(sech x)(tanh^2 (x)) = (sech x)(1 - sech^2 (x)) = sech x - sech^3 (x)
But then i end up with the original problem again.
 

Answers and Replies

  • #2
dextercioby
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[tex] \int \frac{d(\sinh x)}{(1+\sinh^2 x)^2} = \int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2} [/tex]

Can you solve this ?
 
  • #3
LCKurtz
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(sech x)(tanh^2 (x)) = (sech x)(1 - sech^2 (x)) = sech x - sech^3 (x)
But then i end up with the original problem again.
sech(x)tanh2x = [STRIKE]sech(x)[sech(x)tanh(x)]. Let u=sech(x), what is du[/STRIKE]?

[Edit:] Nevermind. I hurriedly wrote what I wanted it to be instead of what it is :mad:
 
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  • #4
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try approaching it from integrating by parts:

∫sec^3(x) dx

u= sec(x) dv=sec^2(x) dx
du=sec(x)tan(x) v=tan(x)


∫sec^3(x) dx = sec(x)*tan(x)-∫sec(x)*tan^2(x) dx
∫sec^3(x) dx = secx*tanx-∫sec^3(x)-sec(x) dx
∫sec^3(x) dx = secx*tanx-∫sec^3(x) dx+∫sec(x) dx

Can you figure out the rest from here?
 
  • #5
DryRun
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Unfortunately, i must be getting stupider... I can't understand either of you.

@dextercioby In your example, if by letting u = sinh x, then du/dx = cosh x, so... the R.H.S. of your equation should be something different. The numerator sinh x can't be absorbed cleanly into du.

@LCKurtz How can sech(x)tanh^2(x) = sech(x)[sech(x)tanh(x)??
If i start with the R.H.S of this equation, it means sech^2(x)tanh(x).

I think you mean, by using the hyperbolic identity: 1 - tanh^2(x) = sech^2(x)
I would then get tanh^2(x) = 1 - sech^2(x)

This would become upon replacing in sech(x)tanh^2(x):
sech(x)[1 - sech^2(x)]

I don't know where this is going...

@McAfee This problem is not about finding the integral of sec^3(x) but integral of sech^3(x). Thanks though.
 
  • #6
vela
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Integration by parts is probably the easiest way to do the problem.

@dextercioby In your example, if by letting u = sinh x, then du/dx = cosh x, so... the R.H.S. of your equation should be something different. The numerator sinh x can't be absorbed cleanly into du.
Let u = sinh x. Then du = cosh x dx, so dx = du/cosh x, so your integral becomes
[tex]\int\text{sech}^3 x\,dx = \int\frac{dx}{\cosh^3 x} = \int\frac{du}{\cosh^4 x}[/tex]Finish changing variables from x to u.
 
  • #7
DryRun
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OK, i was able to get dextercioby's R.H.S. equation.

Now, i'm unsure about the method of integration. Here are the 2 methods that i'm thinking of. I don't know if both methods are valid in this case though.

Method 1:
Integral of (1 + u^2)^(-2).du which after integration would give: -1/[2u(1 + u^2)] + C

Method 2:
Do partial fractions first and then integrate. This would give:
(Au + B)/(1 + u^2) + (Cu + D)/[(1 + u^2)^(2)]
I hope the format above is correct? I used (Au + B) and (Cu + D) as the numerators since the denominator is quadratic. Otherwise i would have put just A and B instead.
 
  • #8
vela
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The first method is wrong. With partial fractions, you'll find A=B=C=0 and D=1. It's already in its simplest form.

I'm not sure what dextercioby had in mind. I usually go the other way. Use the trig substitution to go from the u-form to the trig form, and then use another technique to evaluate the trig integral.
 
  • #9
LCKurtz
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@LCKurtz How can sech(x)tanh^2(x) = sech(x)[sech(x)tanh(x)??
It isn't. Just a careless error.
 
  • #10
SammyS
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Homework Statement
Integral of sech^3 (x)


The attempt at a solution

sech^3 (x) = (sech x)(sech^2 (x)) = (sech x)(1-tanh^2 (x))
And then i expanded by multiplying:

(sech x)(1-tanh^2 (x)) = (sech x) - (sech x)(tanh^2 (x))
The integral of sech x can be found.
But what about the integral of (sech x)(tanh^2 (x))?
I've tried various substitutions, but failed. Let t = tanh x and also let t = sech x.
I also tried this way:
(sech x)(tanh^2 (x)) = (sech x)(1 - sech^2 (x)) = sech x - sech^3 (x)
But then i end up with the original problem again.
Use the power reduction formula for [itex]\displaystyle\int\text{sech}^m(x)dx\,.[/itex] In this case m=3.

You get [itex]\displaystyle\int\text{sech}^3(x)dx=\frac{1}{2} \tanh(x) \text{sech}(x)+\frac{1}{2} \int \text{sech}(x)\,dx\,.[/itex]

To get this result you can do integration by parts with [itex]dv=\text{sech}^2(x)\,dx[/itex] and [itex]u=\text{sech}(x)[/itex] along with some hyperbolic function identities & algebra.
 
  • #11
DryRun
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OK, this is getting immensely complicated! I'm still at undergraduate level and haven't yet done anything pertaining to the power reduction formulae.

So, here is the answer from my notes:
http://s2.ipicture.ru/uploads/20111210/gBo5g6t3.jpg

Hopefully, this will help all of us to trace a better and simpler route to solve this problem.
 
  • #12
vela
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It only seems immensely complicated because you keep ignoring the suggestion to use integration by parts.
 
  • #13
DryRun
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I took a break, and i apologize for being a little bit frustrated with this problem.

From this point: [tex]\int \frac{d(\sinh x)}{(1+\sinh^2 x)^2} = \int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2}[/tex]
I expressed it in partial fractions (can confirm the results that A=B=C=0 and D=1), and got [tex]\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2}[/tex]
But now how to proceed next?
I usually go the other way. Use the trig substitution to go from the u-form to the trig form, and then use another technique to evaluate the trig integral.
Could you please explain how to go about it using your method?
 
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  • #14
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[tex]\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2}[/tex]
But now how to proceed next?
Solve [tex]\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)}[/tex] where [tex]t=\frac{1}{(1+u^2)}[/tex] and [tex]{dv}={du}[/tex] (Integration by parts)
 
  • #15
DryRun
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Hi Karamata

OK, to solve the problem you typed above, here is what i have so far:

[tex]\frac{u}{(1+u^2)} + 2\int\frac{u^2}{(1+u^2)^2}[/tex]

Now, to evaluate [tex]\int\frac{u^2}{(1+u^2)^2}[/tex]

If i break the integral using partial fractions, i believe i will get the same answer, as it's already in its simplest form.

So, i integrate by parts again.
 
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  • #16
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Now, to evaluate [tex]\int\frac{u^2}{(1+u^2)^2}[/tex]...
[tex]\frac{u^2}{(1+u^2)^2}=\frac{u^2+1-1}{(1+u^2)^2}=\frac{u^2+1}{(1+u^2)^2}-\frac{1}{(1+u^2)^2}[/tex].....
 
  • #17
DryRun
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To continue from above:

[tex]\int\frac{1 + u^2}{(1 + u^2)^2} = \int\frac{1}{1 + u^2} = \arctan u[/tex]

But [tex]\int\frac{1}{(1 + u^2)^2}[/tex] is a bit tricky. I cannot simplify it further using partial fractions.

I suppose i'll have to use substitution.

Let [tex]u = tan \theta[/tex] Not sure though.
 
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  • #18
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To continue from above:

[tex]\int\frac{1}{1 + u^2} = (1/u)\arctan u[/tex]
[tex]\int\frac{1}{1 + u^2}= \arctan u[/tex]

I don't get it.

[tex]\int {\frac{du}{1+u^2}}=\frac{u}{u^2+1}+2\left( \arctan {u} + C -\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2}\right)[/tex]
Or [tex]\arctan {u}=\frac{u}{u^2+1}+2\left( \arctan {u} + C -\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2}\right)[/tex]
And now, [tex]\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2}=[/tex]
 
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  • #19
DryRun
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I had made a mistake when evaluating.
[tex]\int\frac{1}{1 + u^2}= \arctan u[/tex]
I edited my post as you were replying. Thank you for pointing it out.

In evaluating the integral below, surely, it can't be as simple as this (but i'll take a chance as i can't see what substitution to make):
[tex]\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2} = \arctan^2 u[/tex]
It's probably wrong though.

If i use the substitution:
Let [tex]u = \tan \theta[/tex]

Then the integral evolves into:
[tex]\int \frac{du}{sec^4 \theta}[/tex]
But
[tex]\frac{du}{d\theta} = sec^2 \theta[/tex]
So, the integral becomes
[tex]\int \frac{d\theta}{sec^2 \theta} = \int cos^2 \theta.d\theta[/tex]

Next, i use double angle formula to convert the above integral into:
[tex]\int \frac{1}{2}.d\theta + \int \frac{cos 2\theta}{2}.d\theta[/tex]
Then, after integration, i get:
[tex] \frac{\theta}{2} + \frac{sin 2\theta}{4}[/tex]
From
[tex]u = \tan \theta[/tex]
I get
[tex]\theta = \arctan u[/tex] which i substitute into the integration results, and i get:
[tex]\frac{\arctan u}{2} + \frac{sin (2\arctan u)}{4}[/tex]
 
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  • #20
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[tex]\arctan {u}=\frac{u}{u^2+1}+2\left( \arctan {u} + C -\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2}\right)[/tex]
And now, [tex]\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2}=[/tex]

[tex]\hbox{TUT}=\hbox{BRB}+2\left(\hbox{TUT}-\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2}\right)[/tex]
[tex]\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2}=\frac{1}{2}(\hbox{BRB}+\hbox{TUT})[/tex]


[tex]\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2} = \arctan^2 u[/tex]
This isn't true.
 
  • #21
DryRun
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I'm not familiar with this formula:
[tex]\arctan {u}=\frac{u}{u^2+1}+2\left( \arctan {u} + C -\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2}\right)[/tex]
Is it a standard formula that i have to learn by heart to solve these kinds of problems. My notes have no such formula. What if i use a substitution to solve it, like i did in my previous reply above?
 
  • #22
vela
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Sharks, I think you need to start afresh to understand what you're doing here.

In post 14, Karamata suggested you integrate 1/(1+u2) by parts, which you did, and you found
[tex]\int\frac{1}{1+u^2}\,du = \frac{u}{1+u^2}+2\int\frac{u^2}{(1+u^2)^2}\,du[/tex]Then Karamata told you to slightly rewrite the integrand on the second integral to get
\begin{align*}
\int\frac{1}{1+u^2}\,du &= \frac{u}{1+u^2}+2\int\frac{u^2+1-1}{(1+u^2)^2}\,du \\
&= \frac{u}{1+u^2}+2\left[\int\frac{u^2+1}{(1+u^2)^2}\,du - \int\frac{1}{(1+u^2)^2}\,du\right] \\
&= \frac{u}{1+u^2}+2\int\frac{1}{1+u^2}\,du - 2\int\frac{1}{(1+u^2)^2}\,du
\end{align*}Note that the last integral on the righthand side of the equation is the one you're trying to solve for. Can you pick it up from here?
 
  • #23
DryRun
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OK, i believe i've solved the right-most integral above, in post #19 by using this substitution:
[tex]u = \tan \theta[/tex]
Or maybe it's wrong?
 
  • #24
vela
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Try using the identity [itex]\sin 2\theta = 2\sin \theta \cos \theta[/itex] to simplify
[tex]\frac{\sin(2\arctan u)}{4}[/tex]
 
  • #25
DryRun
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Then, it expands to become:
[tex]\frac{\sin(2\arctan u)}{4} = \frac{\sin(\arctan u)\cos(\arctan u)}{2}[/tex]

So, now
[tex]\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2} = \frac{\arctan u}{2} + \frac{\sin(\arctan u)\cos(\arctan u)}{2}\; .......equation 1[/tex]

Then,
[tex]\int\frac{u^2}{(1+u^2)^2} = \arctan u - \frac{\arctan u}{2} - \frac{\sin(\arctan u)\cos(\arctan u)}{2}[/tex]

Continuing the substitution and moving up the integration levels:
[tex]\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)} = \frac{u}{(1+u^2)} + 2\int\frac{u^2}{(1+u^2)^2}[/tex]

[tex]\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)} = \frac{u}{(1+u^2)} + 2\arctan u - \arctan u - \sin(\arctan u)\cos(\arctan u)[/tex]

[tex]\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)} = \frac{u}{(1+u^2)} + \arctan u - \sin(\arctan u)\cos(\arctan u) \; .......equation 2[/tex]

OK, now, i've reached post #14 where i need to find:
[tex]\int \frac{du}{(1+u^2)^2}[/tex]

I'm confused how to proceed, since equation 1 above, is the exact thing that i'm trying to find, or should i derive it, using equation 2?

Also, in post #20, Karamata used BRB and TUT. What are these? I'm sorry if this is a stupid question, but i have no clue.
 
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